Alexander Block. Biography

Block is Blok’s biggest lyrical theme. This topic
attracts both the theme of the novel…
Yury Tynyanov

Your name is a bird in the hand,
Your name is a piece of ice on the tongue,
One single movement of the lips,
Your name is five letters.
A ball caught on the fly, A
silver beater in his mouth, A
stone thrown into a quiet pond,
Sobbing the way your name is…

In this amazing poem, the mystery of Marina Tsvetaeva, the name of one of the most musical and romantic poets of the Silver Age, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Blok, lurked. The singer of “dreams” and “fogs”, admirer of the Beautiful Lady and the mysterious Stranger, the inhabitant of the noisy streets and the fearless warrior, Gamayun of Russia, he always remained the subtlest lyric poet whose sacred duty is to serve art and the homeland.

Alexander Blok was born on November 16, 1880 in St. Petersburg in a noble family. It so happened that soon after the birth of her son Blok’s mother, Aleksandra Andreevna, parted with her husband and married again. Children and youth of the future poet were held in the house of his grandfather, the famous botanist, rector of the St. Petersburg University, Andrei Nikolaevich Beketov. In the Beketov family, the cult of creativity and service to public debt reigned supreme. All interests were focused on culture, science, art. So, the poet’s grandmother Elizaveta Grigorievna worshiped music and poetry, she professionally studied literature. Fluent in several languages, she performed scientific and artistic translations of Darwin, Balzac, Flaubert, Maupassant. Elizaveta Grigorievna personally knew Gogol, knew Dostoevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Shchedrin, corresponded with Chekhov. No less talented were the three daughters of the Beketovs. “It was here that they loved the word, the old concepts of literary values ​​and ideals predominated in the family,” Alexander Blok wrote. In this creative and spiritual atmosphere, surrounded by the tender care of grandmothers and aunts, and the future poet grew. “Golden childhood, Christmas tree, aristocratic pampering, nanny, Pushkin…” – such remained in the memory of Blok childhood.

And there was also the “fragrant wilderness of a small estate”, without which it is impossible to imagine neither the life nor the poetry of Alexander Blok. The elder Beketov, on the advice of his friend the famous chemist-scientist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, bought a small Shakhmatovo estate in the Moscow region. It was here that Alexander Blok was born an all-consuming passion for the theater and a deep feeling for Mendeleev’s daughter – Lyubov Dmitrievna. In the summer of 1896, through diligence of the young man, the Private Chess Theater was established, where Blok and Mendeleev participated in amateur theatrical performances. They put Hamlet. She – Ophelia – in a white dress, with a bunch of wild flowers and loose golden hair, descending below the knees. He is Hamlet, the Crown Prince, already aware of the cruelty and meanness of the world in which he was to live in such a young age. Hamlet for a young Blok is not just a role in the play, it’s his personal choice, Hamlet’s part required the gift of a young poet, the voice that sounded the epoch. In 1914, after experiencing the quarrels and partings, Blok wrote a poem “I am Hamlet: The Blood Is Chilling…”, whose lyrical hero identifies himself with the Prince of Denmark, and his beloved with Ophelia:

I am Hamlet. The blood cools,
When the perfidy of the network weaves,
And in the heart – the first love of
Alive – to the only one in the world.
You, My Ophelia,
Gone far away the cold life,
And perish, prince, in his own land
Klinkom poisoned stabbed.

The fascination with the theater was so great that Blok was going to choose an artistic career. But relatives insisted on classical education, and in 1898 Alexander “quite unconsciously” entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. “In fact, only after the end of the” university “course began my independent life,” – recalled A. Block in the “Autobiography.” By this time in the life of the poet there have been many important events. In 1903 he married LD Mendeleeva. In the same year, Blok’s literary debut took place. Ten symbolic poems by the young poet were published in the Symbolist magazine “The New Way”....

In 1904 he became acquainted with Andrei Bely, Valery Bryusov, Konstantin Balmont.

As a poet, Alexander Blok was formed under the influence of Russian classical literature. At the beginning of the poetic path, the closest to him were the romantic romanticism of VA Zhukovsky and the work of the poet and philosopher VS Soloviev. Mature Blok is an original and original poet with his theme about Russia and Love. The late bloc is a tragic poet, overwhelmed by heavy forebodings and expectations.

In 1904, the book “Poems on the Beautiful Lady”, consisting of 93 poems, in which Blok has already established himself as a poet-symbolist. The first collection of A. Blok brought him wide fame. It was these poems that remained the favorite for the poet until the end of his life.

The cult of the Eternal Feminine, which takes on divine-mystical and demonic features, becomes the through-leitmotiv of Alexander Blok’s poetry. The idea of ​​the Eternal Feminine or the World Soul was inspired by Solovyov’s philosophy, according to which everything earthly was viewed through the prism of the heavenly, eternal.

In the period 1905-1908 gg. the collections of the poet “Bubbles of the Earth”, “City”, “Snow Mask” come out reflecting the author’s perception of the surrounding reality. At this time in the poet’s mind there is a reassessment of values. The idea of ​​the essence of the world is changing, life appears in disharmony, in constant struggle and dramatic events. So, in the famous poem by Alexander Blok “Stranger” contrasted everyday and fantasy, “low” reality and “high” dream of the lyric hero. Pushing out the Beautiful Lady Stranger – a mysterious and significant creature. It is both the embodiment of the High Beauty, and the creation of the reality of the “terrible world”.

Through the prism of Eternal Feminine perceives a poet and homeland. In the cycle “On the Kulikovo Field” modern and historical motifs merge into a single whole. The lyrical hero of the Bloc identifies himself with the Russian warrior, whose life is inseparable from the fate of his ancient homeland. In the cycle “On the Kulikovo Field”, the understanding of the poet of the homeland, directed “far into the centuries”, into the future, is transmitted in a heartfelt manner, with an aching impulse. This was the way of Alexander Blok from Russia to Russia.

On the eve of the 1917 revolution, the surrounding reality was increasingly perceived by the poet as a “terrible world”, uncontrollably eager for its destruction. Perhaps, therefore, Alexander Blok accepted the revolution as a manifestation of the “living element”, “cosmic storm”, which will destroy the modern “deadened civilization”. Belief in this inspired the poet to create poems “Twelve” and “Scythians”.

The rethinking of the revolutionary events and the fate of Russia was accompanied by a deep crisis and the spiritual depression of the poet. Tensions with his wife and mother, exhausting work, hunger, a serious illness suspended Blok’s creative flight. One of the last verses was the lines dedicated to AS Pushkin:

Pushkin! Secret freedom
We sang after you!
Give us a hand in bad weather,
Help in a dumb struggle!

In his speech about Pushkin, pronounced six months before his death, the poet said: “Peace and will, they are necessary for the poet to liberate harmony, but peace and will, too, are taken away, not outward rest, but creative-not childish will-secret freedom.” the poet dies because he has nothing more to breathe: life has lost its meaning. ” Creative block and secret freedom was deprived also of Blok, he suffocated in an alien and incomprehensible world to him. On August 7, 1921, Alexander Blok died.

After passing through difficult trials, Alexander Blok managed to maintain faith in man and love of life. His creative credo can be considered a poem “Oh, I want to live crazy!” , addressed to you – young people living in the XXI century:

Oh, I want to live crazy!
All things are to perpetuate, the
impersonal is to
become human, the unfulfilled is to incarnate!
May the sleep that suffocates life be heavy,
Let it suffocate in this dream;
Perhaps, the young man is cheerful
In the future he will say about me:
Forgive grimness – is this a
hidden engine of him?
He is all – the child of good and light,
He is all – freedom of triumph!


Alexander Block. Biography