(1910 – 1971)
(1910-1971) – poet, public figure.
Alexander Trifonovich Tvardovsky was born in the Smolensk region. He studied at a rural school, then at the Smolensk Pedagogical Institute. In 1939 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History (MIFLI).
He began to write poetry from early childhood. The fate of the peasant in the years of collectivization is the theme of Tvardovsky’s first poems: The Road to Socialism (1931), The Introduction (1933), The Diary of the Chairman of the Collective Farm (1932), The Collection of Poems 1930-1935 (1935).
In 1936, the poem “The Land of Muravia” was published, which gained wide popularity. The hero of the poem Nikita Morgunok not only observes during his wanderings
sometimes fantastic transfer of real events, was reflected in an original way. The language of the poem is simple, conversational and at the same time colorful, rich in images, coming from the perception of the world by a peasant working.
In the lyric poetry of the 1930s, which compiled the collections Doroga (1938), Rural Chronicle (1939) and Zagorje (1941), Tvardovsky sought to capture changes in the human character in the collective farm village and create images of its people. The cycle “About Grandfather Danilo” (1938) with his hero – a master of his craft, funny and philosopher – to some extent preceded the future “Book about the fighter.”
Tvardovsky participated in the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 as a correspondent of the military newspaper and wrote a cycle of poems “In the snow of Finland.”
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, the poet worked in front-line newspapers, publishing poems and essays in them.
Very famous was the poem Tvardovsky “Vasily Terkin” (1941-1945). The main character of this
In the post-war poem “The House by the Road” (1946) (see “The House by the Road”) depicts the fate of soldier Andrei Sivtsov and his family, hijacked to Germany, with immense tragic force. The image of his wife Anna, pictures of her bitter motherhood in a foreign land, the imaginary conversation of the baby with her achieve a great power of generalization, symbolizing the invincibility of life in its struggle against violence, death. “Happiness is not in oblivion!” – this is the main motive of this poem and many lyrical poems of the post-war years, dedicated to the memory of all participants in military events (“I’m
killed near Rzhev”, “On the day when the war ended,” “Cruel memory,” etc.).
A poem “For the distance – the distance” (1950-1960) was a wide-ranging lyrical and publicistic work (see “For the distance – the distance”). The travel diary of the poet grows here into the confession of the son of the century, whom “two gave… attracts to himself simultaneously”: the most complex, heroic and tragic period experienced by the Soviet people, and a future rich in new ideas and accomplishments. Tvardovsky skilfully alternates between general and close-ups; So, next to the chapters “On the Angara” and “So it was” are the chapters “Friend of Childhood” and “Moscow on the Road” – stories about the destinies of individuals, each of which is a piece of people, a great stream of history. But the main role in this poem is played by the author himself, who trusts the reader his thoughts and feelings. Hence – Tvardovsky’s final appeal to the readers: “…
The author’s thoughts about art and the artist’s duty in many ways resonate with his satirical poem “Terkin in the Other World” (1954-1963), where a peculiar image of the “other world” was created, according to the author, “… in satirical paint those features of our reality – stagnancy, bureaucracy, formalism – that prevent us from moving forward. ”
Tense thoughts about life, time, people are typical for Tvardovsky’s prose, where with stories and essays (“Pechniki” (1958)) there are heterogeneous records that make up a significant part of the book “Motherland and Stranger” (1947).
In his work Twardowski truthfully and passionately captured the most important, key stages in the life of the people. The people, the accessibility of his poetry are achieved by rich and diverse means of artistic expressiveness. The poet translated poems from Belarusian, Ukrainian and other languages. His works were translated into many foreign languages.
Tvardovsky led a great deal of public work. He was the editor-in-chief of the magazine Novy Mir, secretary of the board of the Writers ‘Union of the USSR, vice-president of the European Writers’ Community.
Tvardovsky’s poetry is an example of the original creativity of the national artist, for whom serving the people was the meaning of all life, the only true happiness.