The Principalities of North-Eastern Russia tried to gain a foothold in the Baltic region. They founded the city of Yuryev on the estonian lands, took tribute from the Finns and Lithuanians. But the Baltic knights were also looked after by German knights. They built a fortress in Riga at the mouth of the Western Dvina. Over time, the knights were captured by Yuryev, who was called Dorpat, and the land of the Chudi, which used to belong to the Novgorodians. And Sweden infringed upon the Finnish lands.
In the summer of 1240 the Swedish ships entered the mouth of the Neva. The Swedes landed on the shore. The Novgorodians organized a rebuff. The young Novgorod prince Alexander attacked the Swedish military camp and defeated him. For this victory he was called Nevsky.
Alexander left Novgorod, because he quarreled with the veche and the townspeople. However, when the German knights approached almost Novgorod, the prince returned and drove them away. He was determined to win from
the Germans and Pskov, but the Pskov themselves opened before them the city gate.
XIII century. From the “Life of Alexander Nevsky.” The Battle of Neva in 1240
And there was a battle with the Latins, and interrupted them many, many, and most… left a trail on his face with his sharp spear.
Here in the regiment Alexandrov distinguished six brave men who fought hard together with him.
One – by the name of Gavrila Aleksich. This attacked the ship and… drove along the bridges… to the ship itself. And all ran before him to the ship, then returned and dropped him… with his horse to the Neva. He… from there got out intact and again attacked them and fought hard with the voivode himself, who was surrounded by soldiers.
The second Novgorod, named Zbislav Yakunovich, repeatedly attacked their army and fought with one ax, not knowing fear… And many died from his hand, and marveled at his strength and courage…
I heard all this from my master Alexander and from others, who then participated in that secession.
In the spring of
1242, when the ice had not yet come down, Alexander Nevsky with the army invaded the lands of the Livonian Order. Then the knights and detachments of the Chudi attacked the Rusich. The battle took place on the ice of Lake Peipsi. Lined up as a “pig”, that is, a wedge, the knights broke through the center of the Russian army. But the Rusich struck the enemy from the flanks and forced him to flee. Some of the knights fell through the ice.
The ice slaughter had delayed the Crusaders’ offensive to the East. Rusichi perceived it as the victory of Orthodoxy over Catholicism. The Russian Orthodox Church proclaimed Alexander Nevsky a saint.