Russia split into separate princedoms very inopportunely when the great Eurasian steppe came to life, where many nomadic tribes lived. At the beginning of the XIII century. the Mongols of Central Asia chose Khan Temucin as their talented commander and organizer. He was called Genghis Khan – “the ruler of the world.” Thus, a young Mongolian state was created, which was destined to conquer half the world.
Mongol-Tatars were nomadic cattle-breeders, they needed vast territories and trade routes. This pushed them to conquer the East and the West. Genghis Khan conquered the tribes and peoples of Siberia, Northern China, Central Asia, Persia, Transcaucasia, attacked Rus and intended to seize Western Europe. But he did not win Russia, leaving her to desecrate his descendants.
In 1236, his first devastating campaign was organized by the grandson of Genghis Khan – Batu. Overcoming the resistance of Rusich, he ruined the Ryazan, Suzdal lands, seized Moscow,
Vladimir and, before reaching Novgorod, returned to the Lower Volga region.
In the early 40-ies XIII century. Baty with his hordes walked through the territory of Ukraine, captured and ruined at the end of 1240 Kiev. The same fate befell part of Poland and Hungary, the lands of the southern Slavs. Baty was determined to seize Western Europe, but in 1242 he suddenly returned to the Lower Volga region.
The Mongol-Tatars were able to conquer territory from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean thanks to the good organization of their troops and the disunity of their victims. The state, which was built in the Volga region by the Mongol-Tatars, was later called the Golden Horde, Saray became its capital. Russia did not belong to this state and had its own princes. However, she became dependent on the Mongol-Tatars and paid tribute to the Horde khans. Russian princes became vassals of the Horde. They could rule in their principality only with the permission of the khan, after asking him for a label
The princes quickly got used to their dependent position, they sought khan’s caress. Since the prince of
Vladimir was considered the eldest and received the right to collect tribute for the Khan, the Russian princes sought in the Horde a label for reigning in Vladimir. They delivered the Horde a bit of trouble, because they were envious of each other. Khan could only maintain this enmity, which he knew how to do. If the people rebelled against the Horde, the princes themselves suppressed these uprisings. They even called upon the Mongol-Tatars to help themselves. The helpers, as the chronicler lamented, “created all the earth empty” – ravaged Russia.
Mongol-Tatar military units consisted of tens of thousands, thousands, hundreds and dozens of soldiers. Lightly armed soldiers had bows with arrows, battle axes, arkans, heavily armed – leather armor, sabers, spears. The soldiers were able to overcome, together with their war horses, water obstacles, to take city walls with the help of siege devices. At the height of the battle, they could have rushed to run, but not out of fear, but to arrange an unexpected ambush for the enemy. Mongolian commanders did not fight alongside their warriors, but at a distance observed the course of the battle and gave the soldiers the right commands.
Khan – the title of ruler in many countries of the East.
Label – the charter of the Horde Khan, which gave the right to reign.