Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky was the son of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodich and Princess Feodosia (daughter of Mstislav Udalogo). He was born on May 13, 1221. It is known that in 1228 and 1230, his father left the brothers Alexander and Fyodor to reign in Novgorod. But only in 1236 the period of the long reign of Alexander in Novgorod began. By that time, Fedor’s elder brother had died. The first years of government were devoted to the strengthening of the city. In 1239 he married Alexandra Bryachislavna, the Princess of Polotsk. This union brought Alexander three sons: Daniel became a Moscow prince, and Andrew and Dimitri reigned in Vladimir.
Prince received his nickname – Nevsky – after the victory over the Swedes in the battle, which occurred July 15, 1240 on the
Soon after that, Alexander because of another conflict leaves Novgorod and leaves for Pereyaslavl-Zalessky. However, the capricious Novgorodians were forced again to call Prince Alexander to himself. This was called a serious threat to their lands by the Livonian Order. The decisive battle took place on the ice of the Peipsi Lake on April 5, 1242. This battle, like the battle on the Neva, went down in history. Alexander defeated the Livonian knights, and so he had to make peace, and, most importantly, renounce all claims to the lands of Russia. A little later, in 1245, the prince repulsed the captured town of Toropets. Thanks to the successful actions of Alexander for a long time was ensured the security of the western borders of Russia.
In the east of the country the situation was completely different. Russian princes had to bow to the power of a stronger enemy – the Mongol-Tatars. and the great prince of Kiev had to go bowing to the capital of the Horde, Karakorum, to get a label for the reign. In 1243 Khan Baty issued such a label to Alexander’s father – Yaroslav Vsevolodovich.
Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich died unexpectedly, September 30, 1246. But the then-ruling Horde Khan Guyuk died while the brothers Andrew and Alexander reached the Horde capital. Hansha Ogul Hamish, who became the mistress of the Karakoram, ordered the Grand Duke Andrew, the youngest brother, to be given. In the management of Alexander went to the lands of southern Russia, including Kiev itself. But Alexander Nevsky, despite this, returned to Novgorod. The pope, Innocent 4th, offered to help Alexander in the fight against the Horde in exchange for accepting Catholicism. But this proposal was rejected in a very categorical form by the prince.
A label for the great reign of Alexander was received in 1252 when Ogul Hamish was overthrown by Khan Mongke. Khan summoned Alexander to Saray, the capital of the Golden Horde. where he was given a diploma to reign. However, Andrei Yaroslavich had strong support from the Galician prince Daniil Romanovich and the Tver prince. He refused to obey the decision of the khan, but soon left the North-Eastern Russia, pursued by a detachment of Mongols under the command of Nevryu.
Prince Alexander Nevsky, whose biography is full of military victories, was forced to pursue a conciliatory policy towards the Golden Horde. This enemy was too strong. During a trip to the Horde in 1262, Alexander Nevsky’s qualities such as diplomacy and ability to negotiate were clearly manifested. Then he managed to save his soldiers from participation in many of the Mongolian conquests. But, returning back, the prince fell ill and died in the Gorodets standing on the Volga. It happened on November 14, 1263. There is a version that the prince was poisoned back in the Horde, but it can not be proved.
St. Alexander Nevsky prince began to read in the 1280’s. in Vladimir. However, the official canonization occurred much later. Prince Alexander was the only ruler in Europe who did not compromise with Rome and the Catholic Church for the sake of preserving power.