THE LIFE OF ALEXANDER NEVSKOGO. The first biography of Prince Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky (1221-1262) was compiled, according to scientists, in the 80’s. XIII century. a scribe of the Vladimir Christmas monastery. Here the body of the prince was buried, and at the end of the thirteenth century. began his veneration as a saint. In the lists J. does not have a stable title and is called “The Story of Life and Courage”, “The Word of the Grand Duke,” “The Life of the Blessed Grand Duke.” The author J. calls himself a contemporary of Alexander, a “visionary” of his life and creates a life story of the prince in his memoirs and stories of his associates.
J. Alexander – this is not a biography, which is full, detailed, consistently
In G. there are many canonical, traditional for this genre. Following the canons of life, the author begins his narrative with self-abasement, calls himself thin and sinful, misunderstood. Coming to the description of the “holy, and honest, and glorious” life of the prince, the author quotes the words of the prophet Isaiah about the sacredness of princely power and inspires the idea of a special patronage of Prince Alexander of heavenly powers. Delight and admiration is full of the following characteristic of the prince. Alexander is handsome, like Joseph the Beautiful, strong as Samson, wise as Solomon, he is invincible, always defeating. The thought of the sacredness of princely power and comparison with the biblical heroes determine the intonation of the whole subsequent narrative, somewhat pathetic, solemnly majestic.
“Having heard about the valor of Alexander, the king of the country of Rome from the northern land.” – so begins the story of the Battle of Neva. The author does not mention that at this time (1240) Alexander was only 19 years old, his contemporaries knew this well (see Kuchkin VA About the date of birth of Alexander Nevsky Questions of History.- 1986.-№2.-p. 174 -176). In G. depicts a mature husband, about whom the ambassadors of other countries say: “I went through countries and peoples, but did not see such a king among the kings, or prince among the princes.” Alexander learns that the Swedes came to the Neva, “puffing with the spirit of the military,” “staggering from insanity,” threatening: “If you can, defend yourself.” He flares up in his heart, goes on a campaign with a small squad, in battle “on the face of the king himself leaves a trace of his spear.” The speech of the prince is beautiful, turned to the squad, laconic, severe, courageous: “God is not in power, but in righteousness.” Decisive, brave Alexander and in the battle on Lake Peipsi. The prince can not bear the boast of the Germans: “Let us conquer the Slavic people!” He liberates Pskov, fights German lands, embodying retribution for the pride and arrogance of enemies. They came, boasting: “Let’s go and defeat Alexander, and capture him.” But the proud knights were taken to flight and taken prisoner, and “barefooted near the horses of those who call themselves” divine knights. “As in the description of the battle on the Neva, the author does not give a detailed picture of the battle, only a few images that help to present, how cruel was the sword: “It seemed that the frozen lake was moving, and there was no ice visible, for it was covered with blood.” The glory of Alexander’s victories spread everywhere. “
In everything the prince and his soldiers are like. The author G. includes in the description of the battle on the Neva a story about six brave men who fought “without fear in their heart”. Each of the six has his own feat of arms. So, for example, the Novgorodian Misha sunk three Swedish ships, Sava brought down the great golden tent, Sbyslav Yakunovich fought with one ax so that everyone was amazed at his strength and courage. Scientists believe that this story of six brave men reflected an oral tradition of a battle on the Neva or a heroic hero’s song. To convey the greatness of the spirit and the beauty of courage, the author turns not only to Russian epic traditions, but also biblical. Alexander’s warriors are compared in their courage and fortitude with the soldiers of King David, their hearts as hearts of lions, they are filled with the spirit of the army and ready to put their heads behind the prince. Biblical comparisons and analogies have become one of the main elements of the artistic system of J. Acts of the prince are comprehended in comparison with the biblical story, and this gives biography a special majesty and monumentality. Constant likens and references to David, Hezekiah, Solomon, Joshua, and Alexander himself are raised to the biblical hero. Instructions for help from above (the appearance of Boris and Gleb Pelgusia before the battle of Nevsky, the miraculous beating of Swedes by angels beyond the Izhora River, the help of the Divine Regiment in the battle on Lake Peipsi) are convincing, in the special patronage of Alexander the divine forces. Jesus Joshua and Alexander himself are raised to the biblical hero. Instructions for help from above (the appearance of Boris and Gleb Pelgusia before the battle of Nevsky, the miraculous beating of Swedes by angels beyond the Izhora River, the help of the Divine Regiment in the battle on Lake Peipsi) are convincing, in the special patronage of Alexander the divine forces. Jesus Joshua and Alexander himself are raised to the biblical hero. Instructions for help from above (the appearance of Boris and Gleb Pelgusia before the battle of Nevsky, the miraculous beating of Swedes by angels beyond the Izhora River, the help of the Divine Regiment in the battle on Lake Peipsi) are convincing, in the special patronage of Alexander the divine forces.
As an intelligent politician and diplomat Alexander Nevsky appears in his relations with the Horde and the Pope. Worthy, learned and wise, the answer of Alexander’s husbands to the ambassadors of the pope. After listing the main stages in the history of mankind and Christianity, they completed it with the words: “And we will not accept the teachings.” The description of the relationship with the Horde should convince that princes remained in Russia, whose courage and wisdom can withstand the enemies of the Russian land. Alexander’s victories inspire fear to the eastern peoples, the Tatar wives scare their children with his name. Even Batu recognizes the greatness of Alexander: “Truth was told to me that there is no prince like him.” And this helps Alexander “begging” the Russian regiments to participate in the campaigns of the Mongol-Tatars.
The story of the death of the prince is agitated and lyrical. The author is unable to contain his feelings: “O woe to you, poor man.” How will not your applets fall with tears, as your heart will not break out with the root! ” The death of the prince is perceived by all as the greatest grief. “The sun of the Suzdal land has already set in!” – says Metropolitan Kirill (Alexander died Grand Duke of Vladimir), “We are already dying!” – the whole nation echoed him. The story of the miracle, when Alexander as alive stretches his hand and accepts the letter from the hands of the metropolitan, is the culmination in this sublime, upbeat narrative of “life and the courage of the faithful and great prince Alexander.” IP Eremin called Zh. “An enthusiastic tribute to the prince’s bright memory.” Not exact historical information would like to inform the author about the prince,