Pasternak Boris Leonidovich is a Russian writer, poet and prose writer of the 20th century. Author of the famous novel “Doctor Zhivago”, a lot of translations from other languages, collections of poems, stories, articles and essays. Nobel prize winner in literature.
Born January 29, 1890 in Moscow in the family of the artist and pianist. Boris had 2 sisters and a brother. In the apartment where the family lived, famous artists of that time came, small concerts were organized, among the guests were Leo Tolstoy, Sergei Rachmaninov, Isaak Levitan. In a brief biography of Pasternak, this time can be called a creative point of reference. In 1903 he became acquainted with the family of the composer Scriabin. From the age of 13 Pasternak began composing music. However, not having an absolute hearing, he left music lessons after six years of training.
In 1909 Boris graduated from the gymnasium in Moscow and enrolled at the Historical and Philological Faculty of Moscow University at the Philosophical Department. On the money accumulated by the mother Boris in 1912 went to Germany to the University of Marburg for the summer semester. But having cooled to philosophy, he throws up his studies and leaves for Italy for several weeks. Pasternak is fully devoted to creativity, which became the work of his entire life. Returning to Moscow, Pasternak graduated from the university in 1913.
In order to enter the Moscow literary circles, Pasternak enters the poetic group “Lyrics”.
The very first collections of poems – “Gemini in the clouds,” “Over the Barriers.” In 1922 a book of poems “My Sister – Life” was published, which made the poet famous. It is her Pasternak considers the expression of his creative position. At the same time I met Vladimir Mayakovsky, whose work influenced Pasternak.
In 1920-1927, Pasternak was a member of the literary association “LEF”. During these years, the poet publishes a collection of “Themes and Variations”, begins to work on a novel in the verses “Spector”, which can be considered partly autobiographical.
In 1931 Pasternak left for Georgia. Poems written under the impression of the Caucasus, entered the cycle “Waves”. . Living here, the writer is engaged in translations from the Georgian language, and also translates William Shakespeare, Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, etc. Translation of works from 1934 became regular and lasted until the poet died.
In 1935 Boris Pasternak wrote letters to Joseph Stalin, in which he interceded for the husband and son of Anna Akhmatova.
The novel “Doctor Zhivago” is the pinnacle of Pasternak’s work, as a prose writer. He wrote him for 10 years, completing in 1955. This novel was published abroad in 1958, Pasternak received a Nobel Prize for him. At home, this novel provoked criticism from both the authorities and literary circles. Pasternak was expelled from the Writers’ Union. Later, in 1988, the novel was published in the magazine “New World”. The novel ends with the poet’s poems, which are permeated with the moral and philosophical pathos of the author’s position.
In 1921 the Pasternak family left Russia. Pasternak actively corresponded with them, as well as with other Russian emigres, among whom was Marina Tsvetaeva.
Pasternak marries the artist Eugenia Lurie in 1922, with whom she visits her parents in Germany in 1922-1923. And on September 23, 1923, they have a son, Eugene.
After breaking his first marriage, in 1932 Pasternak married Zinaida Nikolayevna Neuhaus. With her and her son in 1931 Pasternak went to Georgia. In 1938 they have a common son Leonid. Zinaida died in 1966 of cancer.
In 1946 Pasternak became acquainted with Olga Ivinskaya, whom the poet devoted many poems to and considered his “muse”.
In 1952, Pasternak suffered a heart attack, but in spite of this, he continued to create and develop. Boris Leonidovich began a new cycle of his poems – “When will unravel” This was the last book of the writer. An incurable disease – lung cancer, led to Pasternak’s death on May 30, 1960. The poet died in Peredelkino.