Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva is a famous Russian poetess, prose writer, translator, who, with her work, left a bright mark in the literature of the 20th century.
Marina Tsvetaeva was born in Moscow on September 26, 1892. Her father was a university professor, his mother a pianist. It is worth mentioning briefly that Tsvetaeva’s biography was supplemented by the first verses at the age of six.
The first education was received in Moscow in a private women’s gymnasium, then she studied at boarding schools in Switzerland, Germany and France.
After the death of her mother, Marina and her brother and two sisters were raised by their father, who tried to give the children a good education.
The beginning of the creative path
The first collection of poems Tsvetaeva was published in 1910. Already at that time the famous ones – Valery Bryusov, Maximilian Voloshin and Nikolai Gumilev – drew attention to Tsvetaeva’s work. Their work and the works of Nikolai Nekrasov significantly influenced the early work of the poet.
In 1912 she released the second collection of poems – “The Magic Lantern”. In these two collections Tsvetaeva also included poems for children: “So”, “In class”, “On Saturday”. In 1913 the third collection of the poetess entitled “From Two Books” was published.
During the Civil War for Tsvetaeva, poems are a means
In 1912 he marries Sergei Efron, they have a daughter Ariadna.
In 1914, Tsvetaeva met with the poetess Sofia Parnok. Their romance lasted until 1916. Tsvetaeva devoted her cycle of poems called Girlfriend. Then Marina returned to her husband.
The second daughter of Marina, Irina, died at the age of three. In 1925 his son George was born.
Life in exile
In 1922, Tsvetaeva moved to Berlin, then to the Czech Republic and Paris. Tsvetaeva’s work of those years includes the works of Poem of the Mountain, Poem of the End, Poem of the Air. Tsvetaeva’s poems of 1922-1925 were published in the collection “After Russia”. However, the poems did not bring her popularity abroad. It was during the emigration in Marina Tsvetaeva’s biography that prose was widely recognized.
Tsvetaeva wrote a series of works dedicated to famous and important people:
- In 1930, a poetic cycle was written for Mayakovsky, in honor of the famous Vladimir Mayakovsky, whose suicide shocked the poetess; In 1933 – “Alive on the Living,” memories of Maximilian Voloshin In 1934 – “The Captive Spirit” in memory of Andrei Bely In 1936 – “The Unnearful Evening” about Mikhail Kuzmin In 1937 – “My Pushkin”, dedicated to Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin
Return home and death
After living in poverty in the 1930s, in 1939 Tsvetaeva returned to the USSR. Her daughter and her husband are arrested. Sergei was shot in 1941, and his daughter was rehabilitated in 15 years.
During this period of his life, Tsvetaeva almost does not write poetry, but only translates.
On August 31, 1941, Tsvetaeva committed suicide. A great poetess was buried in the city of Elabuga at the Peter and Paul Cemetery.
The Tsvetaeva Museum is located in Sretenka Street in Moscow, also in Bolshevo, Alexandrov Vladimir Region, Feodosia, Bashkortostan. The monument to the poetess is set on the bank of the Oka River in the town of Tarusa, as well as in Odessa.
- Marina Tsvetaeva began her first poems as a child. And she did it not only in Russian, but also in French and German. She knew the languages perfectly, because the family often lived abroad. She met her husband by accident, resting by the sea. Marina always believed that she would love a man who would give her a favorite stone. Her future husband, unaware of this, gave Tsvetaeva on the first day of their acquaintance a cornelian who found on the beach. During the Second World War, Tsvetaeva and her son were evacuated to Yelabuga. Helping Marina to collect a suitcase, her friend, Boris Pasternak, joked about the rope he had taken to tie the suitcase. It was on this ill-fated rope that the poet hung himself.