(1890 – 1960)
Born in Moscow in the family of the academician of painting LO Pasternak and RI Pasternak (nee Kaufman), until her marriage as a former professor of the Odessa branch of the Imperial Russian Music Society. The most important for the spiritual development of the future poet were three events: initiation to Christianity, fascination with music and philosophy. Parents professed the Old Testament, and the Russian nurse secretly led the boy to the Orthodox Church. The first creative passion of Pasternak, along with drawing, is music. But, having received A. Scriabin’s recognition, the young man broke with musical writing. After graduation from the gymnasium (1906) he studied at the Moscow University; from the Faculty of Law moved to the historical and philological
In the press Pasternak first appeared in the almanac “Lyrics” (1913, 5 poems), then appeared his books of poems “Twin in the Clouds” (1914) and “Over the Barriers” (1917). Returning to these verses, having eliminated and reworked many things, adding the subsequent ones in the periodicals, the poet published in twelve years a new collection – “Over the Barriers, Verses of Different Years” (1929) – a kind of calculation with the past. Pasternak considered his real poetic birth to be the summer of 1917 – the time of the creation of the book “My Sister is Life” (published in 1922). Before Pasternak
The turn of the 1920s-1930s. has affected Pasternak’s evolution with excruciating intensity. After the completion of the poem “The High Disease” (1923-1928), Pasternak concludes the novel in verse “Spektorsky” – about the fate of the Russian intellectual “who must return the stories” (1931, started in 1925). In 1929 he publishes “The Story” with with the eponymous hero of the verse novel, which he considered the first part of the future epic and whose ascent was to be completed by 1918. In the intervals he published several prose works: “Appelles Devil” (1918), “Letters from Tula”, “Childhood Lewers” (both 1922) , “Airways” (1924). However, Pasternak’s prose, published during his lifetime, did not arouse the recognition of his contemporaries. But his lyrics became more and more famous. At the First Congress of Soviet Writers N.
There were grounds for this, although Pasternak himself strongly opposed his erection to the “literary throne.” In the book of 1932 Pasternak’s lyrics “The Second Birth” appeared.
Naturally, during the Great Patriotic War, Pasternak could not abandon himself from the fate of Russia. In the first months of the battle he wrote patriotic poems: “Scary Fairy Tale”, “Bobyl”, “Zastava”, later – “Death of a Sapper”, “Winner” and others. After the evacuation to Chistopol in October 1941 and upon his return to Moscow in August 1943 with a team of writers, he left for the Bryansk Front.
In the winter of 1945/46 Pasternak began to realize his main idea – the novel “Doctor Zhivago” (tentative title – “Boys and Girls”).
The 1950s became a time of hard trials for the writer. The novel “Doctor Zhivago”, proposed for publication by Novy Mir, was rejected by the editors. After his publication abroad (1957) and the awarding of the Nobel Prize to the author (1958), the writer was persecuted both in the official literary and political circles, up to the demand for his expulsion from the country. Outside Russia, Pasternak himself did not think, which prompted him to abandon the Nobel Prize. After suffering a heart attack, the poet died, according to medical experts, from lung cancer. He was buried in the village of Peredelkino, Moscow region.