1. What areas of Russia are distinguished by the production of cars?
Automotive industry concentrates in areas with an advantageous geographical position in relation to numerous enterprises-subcontractors-suppliers of component parts.
As a rule, these are areas with a developed transport network and a high production culture: the Volga region, the Volga-Vyatka district, the plants in Saransk and Pavlovo-on-Oka), the Urals and Central.
2. Why do you think the car industry is not represented in the European North, Siberia and the Far East?
In the European North and in the eastern regions of the country there are no conditions necessary for the development of machine building, there are few consumers there. Therefore, in these areas only car assembly enterprises are developed, for example in Chita.
3. Explain the meaning of the new terms.
The main terms define such specificity of mechanical engineering as cooperation and specialization. In the Geographical
encyclopedic dictionary, the following interpretation is given.
Co-operation of production is a form of production links between specialized enterprises that jointly produce certain products.
Co-operation is due to the growth of social and territorial division of labor. On a territorial basis, it is divided into intra-district and inter-district; on the branch – on the intra-branch and intersectoral. In accordance with the existing types of specialization of production, three types of co-operation are distinguished: aggregate, sub-branch and technological. Depending on the duration of the implementation period, cooperation is divided into a permanent and a temporary one.
The specialization of production is the form of the social division of labor and the organization of social production. Specialization reflects the process of concentration of production of certain types of products or parts thereof in independent industries, industries and specialized enterprises. Specialization helps to increase production and improve its quality, increase labor productivity.
In different branches
of the economy, specialization has its own characteristics. For example, industry distinguishes subject specialization, sub-branch, technological.
4. Draw up a diagram of the main interbranch relations in engineering. Do you think that machine building uses more products from other sectors and sectors of the economy, or does it primarily deliver its products to them?
Your scheme should include the industries and complexes to which engineering supplies its products and industries that supply raw materials for engineering. In most cases, the arrows on the diagram show their mutual exchange.
5. Analyze the machine building products at home. Where is it produced? Find her “homeland” on the map. Evaluate the quality of products. Which of these subjects did not your parents know in your youth?
Unfortunately, most of the household appliances in our apartments are of foreign origin. It is mainly produced in the countries of South-East Asia, where cheap labor is combined with high labor discipline. Many of the devices you used today were not known by your parents as a child. Part of the instruments looked quite different.
6. Compare Russia with other countries in the production of cars. Which domestic and foreign automotive companies do you know?
Russia is significantly inferior to the leading countries in terms of both quantity and quality of cars produced. The leader in the automotive industry at this time is Japan, followed by the United States, Ford Motor, and Germany.
In 1980, Japan overtook the United States in the production of passenger cars. Branches of Japanese firms have successfully deployed their models even in the US and UK.
In the United States, according to data for 2000, 28% of passenger cars are manufactured at local subsidiaries of Japanese firms. At the beginning of the XXI century. factories producing cars operated in 37 countries. They produced 42 million cars of 122 different brands a year. Among the Russian automotive plants should be allocated VAZ, GAZ, Kamaz.
7. Do you think that the level of development of engineering determines the level of development of the country?
Machine building creates the means of production, therefore it significantly influences the development of other industries, the pace and direction of scientific and technological progress, the growth of labor productivity and other economic indicators that determine the efficiency of social production and, consequently, the level of development of the country as a whole.
The correctness of this provision is proved by the fact that all the leaders of machine building are highly developed countries.