1. Why do you think that the key factor in changing one way of life is scientific and technological achievements?
Scientific and technological achievements make it possible to radically change the structure of the economy. Their implementation provides an opportunity to develop new industries and technologies.
2. Why do you think, why in the next cycle there are new technological leaders?
Such a phenomenon can be associated with the cyclical nature of the development of civilizations in general. History shows that any, even the most powerful civilization is gradually coming to a decline and losing its leading position. The well-known Russian historian and geographer LN Gumilev, without relating this to technological structures, distinguished in the development of ethnoses several stages, in the course of the change of which the ethnic group possesses increased energy and is capable of transforming the economy, changing the ways, large scientific discoveries, it loses
Emergence among the technological leaders of new countries can also be explained by the fact that, analyzing the experience of advanced countries, other states are implementing new achievements in their own production and within a few decades are themselves becoming advanced.
3. How do you assess the prospects for Russia in the transition to a new cycle?
And in the Soviet era in Russia there were enterprises that carried out scientific development and their implementation at the world level. Flying into space is unthinkable without the development of electronic industry, computer technology and software, so Russia has a high potential for transition to a new cycle. However, the economic difficulties associated with the transition of our country to a market economy, pushed this point for an indefinite period.
4. Why did the fastest growing industry in the Soviet period?
Heavy industry is a group of industries that primarily produce machinery, equipment, raw materials, fuel, etc. This branch of the economy includes ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, various engineering, chemical,
gas mining industries,
The advance development of heavy industry in Russia during the Soviet period was due to the natural course of history, with the process of creating large-scale machine production. On this basis, the transition from an agrarian society to an industrial one was carried out.
In Britain, the process of industrialization began in the XIX century. After several decades, this country turned into a powerful industrial power. In Russia, industrialization has developed successfully since the late XIX century. After the October Revolution, industrialization was carried out by violent methods at the expense of a sharp restriction on the standard of living of the majority of the population and the exploitation of the peasantry.
5. What changes are taking place in the structure of the economy of Russia at the present stage? What, in your opinion, is the reason for these changes?
In the late 90’s. XX century. in Russia there was a paradoxical situation. On the one hand, the country entered the world market as a significant exporter of raw materials, oil and gas production was outstripping the pace, on the other hand, the managerial apparatus, banking and trade, ie, the sectors giving the most rapid profits, flourishing in period of economic and political crisis. At the beginning of the XXI century. there have been positive developments in the development of manufacturing industries.
6. What are the difficulties associated with the industry of Russia in the modern period?
The big problem for the industry of Russia is aging and deterioration of the equipment of the enterprises. So, according to the statistical yearbook, 48% of production equipment is over 20 years old, i. e., these mechanisms began to work when your parents still went to school. The degree of equipment wear on average in Russia is 51.4%, the highest in the energy sector is -57.8%, the situation in the gas industry is more favorable -27.8%.
High wear of industrial equipment increases the risk of accidents.
So, because of the accident at the Moscow substation “Chagino” in May 2005, without electricity, there were about 2 million people in the capital, as well as in the Moscow, Tula and Kaluga regions. Hundreds of enterprises were forced to stop work. The size of the damage is colossal, for example, at the Petelinsky poultry plant in the Odintsovo district of the Moscow region, 700,000 chickens perished. Due to the interruption of electricity supply, the operation of some filling stations was stopped. For a large number of hospital patients, the situation was life-threatening in the literal sense of the word.
7. What are the branches of the economy that Russia is not inferior to the leading countries of the world in terms of development. How is this explained?
For many years the arms race and the development of defense industries in Russia have led to a distortion in the economy. However, this made it possible to raise the military-industrial complex to the level of world standards, and even to outstrip competitors in many types of products. In many respects, our military aircraft and helicopters surpass foreign counterparts; The Kalashnikov assault rifle is still in service in many countries around the world.
Below, in Table 3, information is provided on the place Russia occupies in the production of certain types of industrial and agricultural products in 2002.
8. The main stages of economic development for their city, region.
Most likely, these stages are the same as in the whole country; Features of your city and region can be associated with the discovery of unique resources.
Further in the regional characteristics, the stages of development of some economic regions are described: 22. The central region, 33. The European North, 36. The Volga region, 42. Ural, etc. Look a little ahead.
9. On the basis of periodicals, prepare information on enterprises that have succeeded in their development in the new conditions. What conditions contributed to this?
Many enterprises of Russia successfully work and develop. You can find out about them on the website: expoweb. en. This database contains information on 58000 enterprises representing 20 industries, joint ventures, representative offices of foreign companies operating in Russia and CIS countries. In addition to standard search functions, the software allows you to edit information, add branches to existing ones, create your own databases.
In 2005, for the ninth time, the contest “The Best Enterprises of Russia” was held, organized by the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs with the support of the Government of Russia. Information on the progress of this competition and the winners of past years you can find on the website: lrp. en.
Among the winners of the 2004 Moscow furniture factory “Shatura”, whose products have long been used in many flats and offices in Russia. Today, “Shatura” is a European system of accounting and budget planning, a computer data processing center, a large marketing service, professional staff, a new production management structure. In 2002, the company’s sales amounted to more than $ 103 million, an increase of 8.7% over the same period last year. According to the magazine “Furniture business” the share of the furniture company “Shatura” among domestic furniture manufacturers was 10.6%. According to the results of the study “Lifestyle of the middle class-2002”, conducted by the agency “Expert MA”, the trademark “Shatura”
Another successful Russian enterprise – CJSC “Combine Red Builder” – is the oldest enterprise in the industry that produces asbestos-cement products. The history of the enterprise began in 1929, with the launch of the first slate plant. In 1933, the second slate plant shipped its products to consumers. And in 1935 the asbestos-pipe plant was commissioned, at that time the only one in the country. The enterprise developed rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s. For 70 years CJSC “Combine Red Builder”, increasing capacity and improving technology, has turned into the largest enterprise of the asbestos-cement industry. Due to the continuous work of the company’s specialists over the quality of products, the slate and asbestos-cement pipes of the Combinat Krasny Builder CJSC are considered to be one of the highest quality products on the building materials market.
Joint-Stock Company “Combine Red builder” – the repeated diploma of the Russian and international exhibitions.