Metallurgical complex of Russia
1. Highlight the centers with the largest enterprises of ferrous metallurgy in the country. How can you explain their location? Compare the figure with the population density map.
In the production of ferrous metals, Russia ranks 4th in the world after China, Japan and the United States, and the first place in exports.
In Russia there are 3 large metallurgical bases, new ones are being formed. In placing the ferrous metallurgy enterprises full cycle, the main factor is the raw material, water resources are also of great importance, since up to 30 m3 of recycled water is required for smelting 1 ton of pig iron. Enterprises of ferrous metallurgy are mainly focused on consumers and suppliers of secondary raw materials. These two properties combine in one person the centers of developed engineering. A comparison of the map of the iron and steel industry and population density will show that large metallurgical centers are located in densely populated areas, large cities. Often
2. Give examples of the influence of such factors as energy supply, proximity to raw materials, fuel, consumer for the location of enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy.
Strong examples of the decisive influence of energy supply are the aluminum smelters of Eastern Siberia; proximity to raw materials – Norilsk Copper and Nickel Plant; proximity to fuel – the two largest combined-cycle plant in Novokuznetsk.
The only plant in Russia that is not provided with either raw materials or fuel, but located at the crossroads of transport routes is Severstal in Cherepovets.
3. Study the cycles of Kondratieff, in what historical period metallurgy became the nucleus of the juhnological cycle. How did this affect the development of other branches of the economy?
Ferrous metallurgy became the core of the second technological cycle in the middle of the 18th century.
4. Why did the demand for non-ferrous metals increase dramatically in the era of the scientific and technological revolution?
Non-ferrous metals are often called strategic raw materials. They find application in the most modern branches of production. Without them, the development of high technologies is impossible. For example, copper is the base metal for the production of conductors. High thermal conductivity of copper is used to manufacture parts of heat exchangers in refrigerators. Alloy copper with zinc combines the properties of copper and increased hardness and strength. A special area of application of copper salts is the control of plant pests and diseases, such as microfertilizer, catalyst, in the leather and shoe industry.
In addition to copper alloys, zinc is used to protect steel from corrosion. Widely used in the automotive industry galvanized bodies, which manufacturers give a guarantee of rotting for 10-20 years. Zinc oxide is a beautiful dye.
Lead – the main metal for batteries, radiation protection equipment, equipment, resistant to aggressive environment, antiknock detonators in gasolines.
Aluminum is now not so much a “winged metal” as a material for the production of electrical wires and biologically neutral packaging, especially for food. Note the explanation in the text of the textbook on alloying elements.
5. Concentration of production in ferrous metallurgy has its pros and cons. Think about the positive and negative features of a small plant. So what is better – giant plants or dwarf plants?
Small, so-called shop, metallurgy is located directly on large machine-building plants, ie, it is oriented to the consumer. Small-scale metallurgy produces high-quality special steels for machine building, often unique brands.
The metallurgy has received a great development in the Central and Volga-Vyatka regions.
Large factories produce the most universal types of products, due to their large volumes, their cost is much lower. Thus, each type of enterprise has its pros and cons.