Power engineering

1. Do you think that the ratio of electricity produced at stations of different types will change in the future?

The production of electricity at stations of different types in Russia is similar to the world average. In the world as a whole, 64% are generated by thermal power plants, 18% by hydroelectric power stations and 18% by nuclear power plants. In Russia, over the past twenty years, there has been a tendency to reduce the share of TPPs and increase the role of HPPs and nuclear power plants. In the future, more and more importance will be given to alternative sources – solar, wind, tidal, use of the internal heat of the Earth.

2. Explain the meaning of the new terms: “electric power”, “Unified energy system”.

Electric power is the leading part of the fuel and energy complex, which provides electrification of the country’s economy.

In economically developed countries, the technical means of the electric power industry

are combined into automated and centrally controlled electric power systems.

The unified energy system is a set of several electric power systems united by high voltage transmission lines and providing power supply to vast territories within one and sometimes several countries.

The EEC of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Kazakhstan includes 9 integrated power systems: North-West, Center, Middle Volga, South, North Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Ural, Kazakhstan and Siberia. Since 1992, this system unites over 900 power plants with a total capacity of about 280 GW; works in conjunction with the electricity systems of Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania.

3. Analyze the positive and negative features of power plants of different types. What social consequences are the negative impact of power plants on the environment?

The main negative properties of thermal power plants are the use of non-renewable energy sources and adverse environmental effects. Annually, thermal power plants emit 3.4 million tons of pollutants into the atmosphere,

more than 20% of all industrial emissions. More polluting the atmosphere is only the enterprises of the fuel industry. Large cities, supplied with electricity through CHP, are among the most polluted population centers in Russia. They increase the number of diseases among the population, and social tension is growing.

The positive when using HPPs is that their construction costs are cheaper than the construction of other power plants.

In the construction of hydroelectric power stations, river valleys are flooded. HPPs are built longer and are more expensive than all other types of power plants.

A positive factor for obtaining energy by means of HPPs is that they use absolutely free energy of falling water, the service staff is not large. All this significantly reduces the cost of electricity.

Using the data in the table, check all “pluses” and “minuses of the NPP yourself”.

4. What is the geographical location of your place of residence in relation to the Fuel Resources Production Areas and the nearest power plants? What are the ways to get fuel and electricity? Has your city been gasified? How much does it cost for a year to consume fuel and electricity to your family?

In order to assess whether the geographic location of your place of residence is beneficial to the enterprises of the fuel and energy complex, use the appropriate maps of the atlas. The answer to the rest of the question depends on the specific conditions of your locality.

5. How can you achieve significant energy savings in the country? What steps, in your opinion, should be undertaken by the state, and which ones – by each of us?

A lot of work is being done around the world to save electricity, both at the state level, and by individual citizens and public organizations. Standards have been adopted for the production of energy-saving products, modern household appliances consume several times less energy than a few years ago. For more rational use of daylight saving time, daylight saving time is implemented. Each of us can make a significant contribution to the saving of electricity, simply turning off the lights in those rooms where it is not currently needed.

6. Speaking about the main sources of energy, one should not forget about alternative energy – wind, tidal, solar, internal heat of the Earth, etc. On the basis of your knowledge of the nature of the country, tell me in which regions of Russia their use is possible.

Although the share of non-traditional or alternative energy producers in Russia is less than 1%, behind these power stations there is a great future. The Pauzhetsky and Mutnovskaya geothermal power plants in Kamchatka, tidal on the Kola Peninsula are already working now.

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Power engineering