Animal husbandry and zonal specialization of agriculture in Russia

1. What are the main features of the distribution of livestock sectors. Is the geography of animal husbandry different from the geography of plant growing?

The distribution of commodity livestock production depends on two main factors: feed bases and large consumers. A significant part of the feeds is given by plant growing, so the geography of livestock and crop production is largely identical.

2. Think about what livestock sectors are located practically throughout the country. How is this explained?

Almost all poultry and pig production are developed, which can be explained mainly by the ease of transportation of mixed fodders. So far, rabbit breeding has not become widespread in Russia. This industry not only makes profit faster than the rest, but, besides meat, it allows to receive fur.

3. What regions of the country can you name as producers of meat, milk, wool?

The main producers of meat, milk and butter are densely populated regions, including

millionaires. So, in 2003, 5% of meat production reached the share of the Moscow, Leningrad, Tomsk regions, Krasnodar Territory, more than 3.5% – Belgorod, Sverdlovsk and Omsk regions. In the production of milk, Moscow and the Moscow region stand out sharply. Next come the Krasnodar Territory, the Sverdlovsk and Omsk regions. The main producers of wool are steppe regions, the republics of the Volga and the North Caucasus.

4. Zonal specialization is characteristic of Russian agriculture. Give examples.

These examples are contained in the map legend. Comparing it with a map of natural areas, you will easily notice that the tundra is a zone of reindeer breeding and fur industries, the taiga is a forest area with foci of plant growing and livestock. Continue this list yourself.

5. Pastures occupy more than 30% of the country’s agricultural lands. To which regions of Russia are they more confined? Which livestock sectors develop mainly in these regions?

In four of the nine zones of agricultural specialization, livestock is the leading position. It is a zone of tundra and forest-tundra,

mixed forests, deserts and semi-deserts, mountain pastures of the Caucasus and Southern Siberia. It is to these zones that most of the pastures of the country are confined, since the availability of fodder is an important condition for the development of livestock.

6. How do you understand the statement: “The significance of animal husbandry is determined by the fact that it produces the most valuable human food”?

Nutrition is the intake of plants, animals and humans into the body and the assimilation of substances necessary for replenishment of energy costs, construction and renewal of tissues.

In food products, valuable food substances such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals are isolated. Proteins account for approximately 20% of the mass of the human body and more than 50% of the dry mass of the cell. In human tissues, proteins are not stored “in reserve”, so their daily intake is necessary.

Proteins differ from each other in their biological value, which depends on the presence in them of essential amino acids, their relationship with interchangeable, digestibility in the digestive tract. On average, biological value is higher for proteins of animal origin. Proteins contained in milk, eggs, meat, liver, have an optimal ratio of essential amino acids. Their digestibility in the digestive tract is 97%. Vegetable proteins are digested much worse – only by 83-85% – because of the significant content of indigestible substances in products of plant origin. Vegetable food mostly contains a small amount of protein. All this allows us to agree with the fidelity of the statement indicated in the assignment.

7. Give examples of modern industrial development of livestock. Than it is caused? What does it show?

The most industrial branch of animal husbandry is poultry farming.

Modern poultry farms are real factories for the production of meat and eggs.

8. What causes affect the location of livestock in the country? Give examples.

Since livestock farming largely depends on the feed base, and the main supplier of feed is crop production, many livestock sectors have a zonal location. Livestock provides the population with food, and therefore the placement of a part of the enterprises is determined by the consumer factor.

The location of the main livestock sectors is given in the table.

Horse breeding as a productive branch of the industry is common among the majority of the peoples of the Altaic language family. Reindeer breeding is typical for the northern tundra and taiga regions of Russia.

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Animal husbandry and zonal specialization of agriculture in Russia