Halicarnassus Mausoleum

We will move to the ancient city of Halicarnassus. He was the capital of Caria and, as it is due to the capital of the state, was famous for its beauty and grandeur. Temples, theaters, palaces, gardens, fountains, a living harbor guaranteed the city the honor and respect. But special attention was paid to the tomb of King Mausol, one of the seven wonders of the world in the ancient world. So, the wonder of the world mausoleum in Halicarnassus.

King Mausolus, ruling Caria in the 4th century BC. e. (377-353 years), according to the experience of the Egyptian pharaohs, began the construction of his tomb during his lifetime. It was supposed to be a unique building. Located in the center of the city, among palaces and temples, it symbolizes the power and wealth of the king. And for the worship of the late king, she must combine both the tomb and the temple. The best architects and sculptors were selected for the construction – Pythia, Satyr, Leohar, Skopas, Briaksid, Timofey.

After the death of the king, his wife, queen Artemisia, even more intensively approached the construction of an eternal monument to her great husband.

The building was completed in 350 BC. e. Its appearance combined several architectural styles of that time. In the mausoleum three levels were distinguished with a total height of 46 meters. The first tier was a massive basement of brick, lined with marble. Further on it towered a temple with 36 columns. The columns supported the roof in the form of a pyramid with 24 steps. At the top of the roof was a sculpture of King Mausolus and Artemisia in a chariot drawn by four horses. Around the building there were statues of horsemen and lions. The beauty of the building fascinated, it is no coincidence that the mausoleum in Halicarnassus quickly entered the seven wonders of the ancient world.

The tomb of Mausolus and his wife were located in the lower tier. To worship the king was built the upper room with columns and a statue of Mausolus. The statue has survived to this day, and fully reflects the image of the despotic king. The sculptor in the features of the face

subtly conveyed the character of Mausolus – vicious, cruel, capable of getting everything he needs. It was no accident that he was a very rich man. Next to the statue of Mausolus there was a statue of Queen Artemisia. Her own sculptor embellished, served in a majestic, mild manner. Worked on it a famous sculptor of the time Skopas. Both of these statues are now considered one of the best in the Greek culture of the IV century BC. Separately it is worth mentioning about the upper part of the base of the mausoleum. Sculptors decorated it with scenes from the Greek epic – the battle with the Amazons, hunting, the battle of the Lapiths with centaurs.

Mausoleum – the word that occurred on behalf of the king Mausol, is now a household name among all peoples.

After 18 centuries the mausoleum was destroyed by an earthquake. Later, its ruins were used to build the castle of St. Peter’s Knights-Johannits. When the Turks came, the castle became the fortress of Budrun, now called Bodrum. Excavations here were conducted in 1857. There were found relief plates, statues of Mausolus and Artemisia, a statue of a chariot. Currently, they are exhibited in the British Museum.

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Halicarnassus Mausoleum