1. What is famous for the Kiev-Pechersky Monastery?
In Ukraine, probably, there is no person who has not heard a forehead about the monastery – the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. It is located in Kiev on the Dnieper slopes. The monastery was founded around 1051, presumably by Antony Pechersky. First it was located in caves – hence the name. Changes in the life of the monastery occurred when he was led by the disciple Antony – Theodosius. Under the leadership of Theodosius began the construction of the main temple of the monastery – Uspensky. According to sources, for masters were invited from Byzantium. Construction work was completed in 1078. This construction marked the beginning of the transformation of the monastery into the main center of the spiritual and cultural life of princely Rus-Ukraine. The monastery rewrote books, created annals, church and secular literary works, translated liturgical books from other languages.
Architectural decoration of the
“Great Church of the Caves” – as they called it Pecherians – is simpler and more rigorous than the St. Sophia Cathedral. However, its small size, clear architectural forms determined that it became a model for temples in many cities of Russia.
In the following centuries, the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersky Monastery underwent changes. At the beginning of the 18th century. it was rebuilt and decorated in a new way: the church, once of small dimensions, turned into a majestic, luxuriously decorated building. In 1941, during the war, the cathedral was destroyed. It was restored during 1998-2000.
2. Cossack architecture
The construction of Christian churches did not cease in our lands at all times.
A masterpiece of Cossack architecture is considered a cathedral in the Zaporozhye city of Samara. This wooden miracle-temple was built by the national master Akim Pogrebnyak. Ordering the master the church, the Cossacks asked to build it without nails, because they believed that it was impossible to hammer nails into the temple of the Savior – Jesus Christ, who
was nailed to them on the cross.
Stone caves of the Cossacks are no less striking. Majestic and luxuriously decorated, they most clearly embody the dreams of their creators about the future of Ukrainian land. It is no accident that the customers of these churches and cathedrals were Ukrainian rulers – hetmans, colonels, a wealthy Cossack sergeant-major. Thanks to harmonious proportions, one of the masterpieces of Cossack architecture is rightly considered the St. George’s Church of the Vydubitsky Monastery in Kiev. The temple was erected at the expense of the old-Noble colonel Mikhail Miklashevsky.