The essay on “Poverty”

Poverty is one of the main problems in many countries of the world, especially those located in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In other words, poverty is the lack of money to buy food, water, clothes, medicines, a roof over your head and other necessary things for a normal existence. Poverty is the root of many other social and economic problems, including unemployment, child exploitation, population growth and crime, etc. Some developing areas are poorer than others. There is the concept of extreme poverty and moderate. Extreme poverty refers to places where people earn only a dollar a day, while in conditions of moderate poverty they earn at least a few dollars a day. In some countries there are a large number of poor people with work. This means that people have a job, but so low-paid that people can not afford to buy food for their families. And in some developed countries there are unemployed people who receive a special allowance from the government, but this fee is also so low that they can not absorb most of the daily expenses. Life in such bad conditions can lead to many health problems. Every day people in developing countries die from various diseases, because they can not afford to buy the necessary medicines. In my opinion, the governments of developed countries should pay more attention to the problem of poverty. The best way to help people in the poor is to educate them. Thus, they can learn about their rights and start contributing to the economy of their country. The country will also flourish,

Ivan Vishensky

Little is known about his life: Ivan is a monastic name, and Vyshensky could mean a place, although in Moscow the Court Cherry fixes the name Vyshensky (V. Shchurat). He studied first in his native city, then in Lutsk, where he was close to Roman Catholics. Knowledge of European intellectual literature (Latin – linguistic) – Erasmus of Rotterdam, T. Mora, T. Müntser, etc. testifies: the statement of the thinker that he did not study in Latin schools is false, made of political motives. In the first period of his life, it was evidently close to Protestants (Socinians), for his idea of ​​a church without lords was a reformist one. I experienced some kind of emotional drama, evidently after a clash with the Jesuits, after which I became friends with Lviv brothers. For some time he was associated with Ostrozhsky literary and scientific circle of the second half of the 16th century. In the 80 years he moved to Athos, from where he sent his letters to Ukraine, written in the style of the Epistles of the Apostle Paul. In 1604, he visited Ukraine, lived for two years in Lviv, Sketch Manyavsky and other places. 1606 again returned to Athos, where he completed his life.

Up to now, 16 treatises and messages of Ivan Vyshensky have come down, 10 of which he combined into a hand-written “Book.” It was built on the model of “Knizhits”, which was published in Ostrog in 1598. The “polebook” was sent to Ukraine by the polemic not earlier than 1599 and no later than 1601, hoping that it would be...read by brotherhood and given out as a seal. Even before the conclusion of the “Book” was printed “Epistle to the Bishops” (Ostrog, 1588). There is an opinion that around 1609 Ivan Vyshensky sent to Ukraine a second set of messages that seem to constitute the second “Book”. Separately there is “The Mischlein’s Spectacle” – the last work of the polemic written on the translation of the 10th book of John Chrysostom “The Book of the Priesthood” (Lviv, 1614) in 1615-1616. where he defends his detachment from the world.

In the first “Book”, except for the purely polemical task of confronting the union and the Roman Catholic faith in which the so-called “Catholic Rus” was located, Ivan Vyshensky created his utopian-mental system, built on the apology of poverty and stupidity, higher than any mind (after the apostle Paul), which is a kind of philosophical discussion with the “Praise of stupidity” by Erasmus of Rotterdam. The human civilization, after Ivan Vishensky, developed harmoniously until a certain time, but after the split of Christianity the former truth was destroyed, so people need to return to the previous state of development, to the original simplicity, that is, purity, of primary education. Having rejected the Latin system of education, built “on the elements of the world,” one should build “a spiritual, simple, humble mind, meek and silent. “Renovated people must make up a new society (church), cleansed and righteous, that will be the way to comprehend the ideal of the golden millennial kingdom that can be obtained when each person sets himself the goal of moral perfection. Then such a society will become an image and likeness “the heavenly, heavenly sky,” in the middle of which there will be a planted “intelligent tree of eternal life.” Ideally, the thinker saw a society made up of communities (fraternal unions), like the early Christian ones, awns or with very limited, earned by their own labor, without masters, kings, rulers, which are the product of unjust social development. The Thinker sharply denied the autocratic form of government (or papism). In general, such a system fits into the context of Western European utopias XVI – the first half of the XVII century. has parallels in the then Polish literature.

Ivan Vyshensky did not come to humanism, although he has elements of a humanistic worldview (for example, sympathy for the common people). His acute religious orthodoxy, in particular, disdain for everything that did not concern “eternal salvation” (earthly beauty, art, folk customs, joys of life), as well as the denial of national values ​​led to the fact that his messages did not have the proper effect on society, in particular on brotherhoods, as the thinker hoped, which led him to self-isolation from the world.

The works of the second period (the second Book) no longer affect such a force of passion as the first, and is not an attempt to teach the world how to live, but the defense of one’s own views, which led to the spiritual and decisive decline of the polemicist and zneohoto it to public competitions. In the style key of the work of Ivan Vyshensky is a model of the early Ukrainian literary baroque.


The essay on “Poverty”