Alexander Isayevich Solzhenitsyn is a famous Soviet writer, historian, public and political figure, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, dissident. Nobel laureate, author of the famous manuscript “Gulag Archipelago”.
Childhood and Education
Alexander Isaevich Solzhenitsyn was born on December 11, 1918 in the city of Kislovodsk to a peasant family and Cossacks. Alexander’s poor family moved to Rostov-on-Don in 1924. Since 1926, the future writer was studying at a local school. At this time he creates his first essays and poems.
In 1936, Solzhenitsyn entered the Rostov University at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, while continuing to engage in literary activities. In 1941, the writer graduated from Rostov University with honors. In 1939, Solzhenitsyn entered the correspondence department of the Literature Department at the Moscow Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History, but because of the outbreak of the war he could not finish it.
The Second World War
Despite the poor health, Solzhenitsyn sought to the front. Since 1941, the writer served in the 74th transport and horse-drawn battalion. In 1942, Alexander Isayevich was sent to the Kostroma Military School, after which he received the rank of lieutenant. Since 1943, Solzhenitsyn has served as the commander of the sound reconnaissance battery. For military services, Alexander Isaevich was awarded two honorary orders, received the rank of senior lieutenant, and then captain. During this period, Solzhenitsyn did not stop writing, kept a diary.
Conclusion and reference
Alexander Isaevich was critical of Stalin’s policy, in his letters to a friend Vitkevich condemned the distorted interpretation of Leninism. In 1945, the writer was arrested and sentenced to 8 years in camps and an eternal exile. In the winter of 1952, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, whose biography was already quite uneasy, discovered cancer.
In 1953, the writer was sent into exile in the Kazakh SSR. There he taught at school, was treated in the “cancer corps” in Tashkent. In 1956, when the reference to Article 58 was disbanded, the writer returned to Russia.
Years of imprisonment are reflected in the literary work of Solzhenitsyn: in the works... “Love the Revolution,” “In the First Circle,” “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” “Know the Truth of the Tanks,” and others.
Conflicts with the authorities
Settled in Ryazan, the writer works as a teacher at a local school, continues to write. In 1965, the KGB captured the archive of Solzhenitsyn, he was forbidden to publish his works. In 1967, Alexander Isaevich wrote an open letter to the Congress of Soviet Writers, after which the authorities begin to perceive him as a serious opponent.
In 1968, Solzhenitsyn completed the work on the “Gulag Archipelago” abroad, “In the First Circle” and “Cancer Corps”. In 1969 Alexander Isaevich was expelled from the Writers’ Union. After the publication in 1974 of the first volume of the “Gulag Archipelago”, Solzhenitsyn was arrested and deported to Germany.
Life abroad. Last years
In 1975 – 1994 the writer visited Germany, Switzerland, the USA, Canada, France, Great Britain, Spain. In 1989, the “Gulag Archipelago” was first published in Russia in the magazine “Novyi mir”, and soon the magazine “Matrenin Dvor” is published in the magazine.
In 1994, Alexander Isayevich returned to Russia. The writer continues to actively engage in literary activity. In 2006 – 2007, the first books of the 30-volume collected works of Solzhenitsyn are published.
The date when the difficult fate of the great writer was cut short was on August 3, 2008. Solzhenitsyn died in his home in Troitsa-Lykov from heart failure. The writer was buried in the necropolis of the Donskoy Monastery.
- Alexander Isaevich was twice married – to Natalia Reshetovskaya and Natalia Svetlova. From the second marriage of the writer three talented sons – Ermolai, Ignat and Stepan Solzhenitsyn. In the brief biography of Solzhenitsyn, one can not help but mention that he was awarded more than twenty honorable awards, among which the Nobel Prize for the work “The Gulag Archipelago”. Literary critics are often called Solzhenitsyn Dostoyevsky or Tolstoy of our era. At the grave of the writer is a stone cross, created by the project of sculptor D. M. Shakhovskiy.