Gumilev Nikolai Stepanovich – Russian poet, prose writer, literary critic, translator, representative of the literature of the “Silver Age”, the founder of the school of Russian acmeism.
Childhood and the first works
Nikolai Stepanovich Gumilev was born on April 3, 1886 in Kronstadt, in the family of a ship’s doctor. The childhood of the future writer was held first in Tsarskoe Selo, and then in the city of Tiflis. In 1902, Gumilyov’s first poem “I flew to the forest from the cities…” was printed.
In 1903, Nikolai Stepanovich entered the 7th grade of the Tsarskoye Selo Gymnasium. In the same year, the writer met his future wife – Anna Gorenko. In 1905, in a brief biography of Gumilev, the most important event occurred – the first collection of the poet, The Way of the Conquistadors, was published.
Mature creativity. Travels
After graduating from the gymnasium in 1906, Gumilev went to Paris and entered the Sorbonne. While in France, Nikolai Stepanovich tried to publish the magazine “Sirius” that was refined for those times. In 1908 the second collection of the writer “Romantic Flowers” was published, dedicated to Anna Akhmatova. This book marked the beginning of Gumilyov’s mature work.
Nikolai Stepanovich returns to Russia, but soon leaves again. The writer visits Sinop, Istanbul, Greece, Egypt, African countries with expeditions.
In April 1910, Gumilev married Anna Akhmatova.
“The shop of poets” and acmeism. First World War
In 1911, with the participation of Gumilev, a poetic association “Poets’ Workshop” was created, which included O. Mandelstam, S. Gorodetsky, V. Narbut, M. Zenkevich, E. Kuzmina-Karavaeva. In 1912, Nikolai Stepanovich announced the appearance of a new artistic trend of acmeism, the magazine Hyperborey was soon created, Gumilev’s collection Alien Sky was published. In 1913, the writer again sent to the East.
With the outbreak of the First World War Gumilev, whose biography was already full of extraordinary events, voluntarily goes to the front, for bravery is awarded two St. George crosses. During the service in Paris in 1917, the poet falls in love with Helen du Busch, devotes her collection of poems “To the blue star.”
Postwar years. Death
In 1918 Gumilev returned to Russia. In August of the same year the writer gets divorced from Akhmatova.
In 1919 – 1920 the poet worked in the publishing house “World Literature”, teaches, performs translations from English, French. In 1919 he married Anna Engelhardt, the daughter of N. Engelgard. Gumilev’s poems from the collection “The Fiery Pillar” are dedicated to his second wife.
In August 1921, Nikolai Gumilev was arrested on charges of involvement in an anti-government “Tagantsev plot.” Three weeks later he was sentenced to death, executed the next day. The exact date of the execution and the burial place of Gumilev Nikolai Stepanovich are unknown.
- In 1909 Gumilev took part in an absurd duel with M. Voloshin because Nikolai Stepanovich unflatteringly spoke about the poet Elizaveta Dmitrieva. Both poets did not want to shoot, Gumilev fired into the air, Voloshin’s pistol snapped. In 1916, Gumilev enlisted in the special Fifth Hussar Alexandrian Regiment, whose soldiers took part in the most fierce battles near Dvinsk. Anna Akhmatova always criticized Gumilev’s poetry. This often led to the fact that the poet burned his works. For a long time Gumilev’s works were not published. The poet was rehabilitated only in 1992. About the life of Gumilyov, two documentaries were shot – “Testament” and “New Version: Gumilev vs. Dictatorship”.