(1818 – 1887)
Katkov Mikhail Nikiforovich (1818, Moscow – 1887, pp. Znamenskoe Moscow Province) is a journalist. The genus. in the family of a small office clerk, childhood and youth passed in poverty. Katkov studied at the Transfiguration Orphan School of the 1st Mosk. gymnasium and in a private boarding house. In 1834 – 1838 Katkov so successfully engaged in the verbal division of Moscow. Un-ta, that listen to his answers came to the students, and he graduated with a degree with honors. Katkov entered the circles of NV Stankevich and VG Belinsky, was acquainted with AI Herzen, closely met with MA Bakunin, was published in Zh. “Domestic notes” and “Moscow Observer”. Living lessons and not getting out of debt, Katkov entered the University of Berlin in 1839, where he attended Schelling’s lectures. In 1842 Katkov returned to Russia, but completely broke up with his former comrades, that Belinsky foresaw, reporting Katkov: “There is an abyss of selfishness and selfishness… This person somehow did not enter our circle, but came to him.” In 1845 Katkov defended his thesis “On the Elements and Forms of the Slavonic-Russian Language” and became an adjunct in the Department of Philosophy, practicing until 1850 exclusively in science. In 1850 an order was issued, according to which only professors of theology could teach philosophy. In 1850 – 1855 Katkov managed the editorial board of gas. “Moscow sheets”. In 1856 Katkov became publisher-editor of the moderately liberal journal. “Russian Herald”, where he spoke in defense of the constitutional-monarchical principles of state. Undoubtedly supporting the reforms being prepared by the government. Katkov considered it correct to free the peasants with land for ransom to create a “reliable class” of middle landowners, considered it necessary to introduce local self-government. Thanks to the skillful selection of employees and a good production of the fictional section of the journal. studs to enjoy great success. Katkov, a liberal Westerner and an Englishman, spoke against NG Chernyshevsky and AI Herzen with their hopes for a roar. development of events. In 1863 Katkov headed the “Moscow Gazette”. At the same time, an uprising began in Poland. Katkov said that keeping Poland “with an armed hand” is a historical necessity. To preserve the unity of the empire, Katkov considered
any means permissible. Being outside the government, but being an influential publicist, enjoying the support of most of the Russians. society, Katkov urged the authorities to take decisive action. Herzen wrote about Katkov: “The liberal publicist… threw overboard liberalism, constitutionalism, the worship of Europe… suddenly felt like a violent patriot. “In 1866, without leaving the gas, Katkov became an official for special assignments to the minister of public education.” The more the roaring atmosphere was, the more “right” Katkov became. economic problems, promoting industrial development, believing that in this way Russia will be able to strengthen military power, establish itself on the world market and preserve the integrity of the empire. “But this did not mean, in Katkov’s opinion, that the country would cease to be agrarian, and the nobleman Katkov devoted a large role to education, believing that the correct educational system would be able to counteract the evolving “nihilism.” After the assassination of Alexander II, Katkov became a supporter of the tough course of Alexander III, getting close to KP Pobedonostsev. “Do not we have to be envious of parliamentarism, this vulgar doctrine that has everywhere lost credit, which can only be suitable as a means of gradually weakening power and moving it from one’s hands to others,” wrote Katkov, whose central idea of journalism was the substantiation of autocracy as power, the only possible in Russia. Katkov’s hatred for the new post-reform arrangements and institutions (courts, zemstvos, etc.) was all the stronger, the more once he himself fought for them. Katkov died in his magnificent manor house. His death was perceived as a state. event and in the churches of all Russia served the requiem for the deceased. Katkov died in his magnificent manor house. His death was perceived as a state. event and in the churches of all Russia served the requiem for the deceased. Katkov died in his magnificent manor house. His death was perceived as a state. event and in the churches of all Russia served the requiem for the deceased.
Short biography from the book: Shikman AP. Figures of national history. Biographical reference. Moscow, 1997.