The prologue tells about the events that occur in the poem itself. That is, about how seven peasants from the villages of Zaplatovo. Poorly. Dyryavino. Znobishino. Ridovo. Neelovo. Gorelovo began a dispute on the topic “Who lives weight ate, free in Russia?”. This nonsensical social question, Nikolai Alekseevich, not without reason gives to the illiterate and ignorant class, which peasants were considered at the end of the 19th century, is a very courageous step – to entrust the search for justice, and humanly – to simple peasants. After all, each of them judges in their own way “who is more free” landlord, official, pop, merchant, noble boyar, minister of sovereigns or tsar. In the work of the poet included such fabulous conventions, like
Chapter I Pop.
On the way to the peasants there are different wanderers: craftsmen, beggars, the same as they are a peasant-lapotnik, coachmen, and soldiers. But they do not ask questions about the happiness of the peasants: “The soldiers are shaving themselves, The soldiers are warming up with smoke, What happiness is there?”. Closer to the evening, the peasants met a priest. From his plaintive speeches it turns out that the “landlords” were ruined, hinting at the abolition of serfdom by Alexander II the Liberator in 1861. The ideal of happiness of the priest is “peace, wealth, honor.” But in real life this did not happen to him, in connection with the impoverishment of the landlords and peasants and the rich, well-fed way of life, the priest came to an end.
Chapter II Rural Fair.
In this chapter, the men go to the commercial village of Kuzminskoye. to ask people about happiness there. They hear different things: somebody buys something, sells it, and somebody does not even buy all the savings and can not buy gifts for their relatives. Russian people know how to rest, and therefore walks with a sweep, as if the last day is alive.
Chapter III. Drunk night.
At the fair, the peasants met a new character in the poem – Pavlusha Veretennikov. It is he who broadcasts to our “heroes” about the terrible trait of a Russian man – drunkenness. Yakim Naga, in turn, counter-argues with the saying that grief has to be poured with wine. The poet in general created Yakima Nago as the embodiment of a plowman – a toiler. which is capable of reflection.
Chapter IV. Happy.
In this chapter, the image of the hero Ermila Girin is painted with new colors. The main emphasis is on the scene with the merchant Altynnikov. about the purchase of the mill. To “win” over the merchant, Girin needs 1000 rubles as quickly as possible. Ermila decides to ask the people to help him with this amount. And in the market day in the trading area carries out the conceived. Peasants, imbued with the position of Girin. “give, who than is rich.” This story is also related to the search for human happiness. The travelers carefully listened to the story, they wanted to meet with him, but this was not to come true. Because Ermila is sitting in a prison. And the people about him are the good reputation of defenders of peasant interests.
Chapter V. Landowner.
The fifth chapter of the poem is dedicated to the story of the landowner Obolt-Obolduyev about his life. The key words of the description of the past life are: “The chest of the landowner breathed freely and easily”: “Whomsoever I want, I will have mercy, Who I want-the execution.” The law is my desire! The fist is my police! “. Now everything has changed, the peasants prefer theft, as a simpler and easier business than work. In the course of the story, the landowner understands how worthless his life is: “What did I learn? What did I see around? I smoked heaven’s sky, Carried the royal livery, Sory the treasury of the people And thought the century so live.” The chapter ends in tears of the landlords and his feeling of being deeply unhappy.
PART II. THE LAST
It is dedicated to the history of Prince Utyatin. He still can not believe that the reform of the liberation of the peasants forever deprived him of his landlord privileges. The princely sons ask the peasant people, at least outwardly, to preserve the old forms of the “landlord-peasant” relationship. In the text this is shown by the words: “Keep your mouth shut, do not shout to the bark, we will reward you.” The peasants seem to express their consent: “We joked, fooled.” At the end of the second part, the fact of weak self-awareness of the peasants becomes obvious.
PART III. THE PEASANT.
The author composed the third part of the poem from the prologue and eight chapters. The narrative comes from the person of Matryona Timofeevna, whom everyone around is considered a lucky woman, although Matrena herself does not think so. She tells the peasants about her life. In her confession includes the stories of the holy Russian warrior Saveliy, whom he tells on his own. Matryona Timofeevna’s life is full of tragedy. Her story begins in the distant past, at a time when the abolition of serfdom was only allowed to dream. Recognizing the situations in which Matryona Timofeevna found herself, it’s hard to believe in the wildness of the people through which she had to go through. Matren’s first-born left her for grandfather Savelia. He did not follow the baby and ate the pigs.
The police, ignoring her grief, did not consider this an excuse, accused of collusion with the convict. The physician under the eyes of Matryona performs an autopsy of a small body, the grief of the mother knows no boundaries, and all the time she spends on the grave of her son. Grandfather Savely, feeling his guilt, goes into the woods, and then to repentance in the “Sand Monastery”. On this her troubles did not end. soon, she also bury her parents. Natasha gives birth every year. Parents of the husband – a father-in-law with the mother-in-law – do not like it and try to cope with light. My husband was taken to the recruits for 25 years. Matryona works one for all. Unable to withstand the onslaught, she asks for help from the governor. In anticipation, she loses consciousness, and when she comes to herself, she finds out that she has given birth to a son.
The Governor does the utmost for Matryona. The husband is returned home. As a result of her confession, Matryona tells the peasants: “It’s not a matter of finding happy women!”. The old woman, in the same village, gave a very accurate description of the female share: “Keys to the happiness of the female, From our free volojki Abandoned, lost By God himself!”
IV PART. PIR FOR THE ENTIRE WORLD
Nekrasov included in his final part of the poem an introduction and five chapters. According to the plot, the fourth part continues the second: the death of Prince Dutyatin entailed the celebration of peasant people, the discussion of questions about the meadows, which promised to the sons of the prince. In the text this is reflected in the words: “On the day of the death of the old prince, the peasants did not foresee that the meadows are not hired, but they will make a lawsuit.” “Our” peasants from seven villages are present at the feast as guests: listen to songs, stories about Kudeyar. about Yakov, about the elder Gleb. But sooner or later everything comes to an end and “Our wanderers stayed under the willow,” Fall asleep. The songs of Grisha Dobrosklonov reflect the thoughts of the people of Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov himself. It consists of an introduction and five chapters.
The fourth part continues with the second part: Prince Utyatin died, and the peasants made a feast to the whole world, discussing the question of the meadows promised by the prince’s sons (“On the day of the old prince’s death the peasants did not foresee that the meadows are not hired, They will make a lawsuit”). Wanderers are present as guests: they listen to songs, stories about Yakov, about Kudeyar. about the elder Gleb. But the great feast was over. “Having fallen asleep, our pilgrims remained under the willow.” And the author in the meantime talks about Grisha Dobrosklonov. Grisha Dobroskolonov sings songs in which the thoughts of the people of Nekrasov himself are reflected: “You and the wretched, You and the plentiful, You and the mighty, You and the powerless, Mother Russia” conclude the product of a line that express the common deep meaning of the entire poem: “To be our pilgrims under the roof of our native land, if they could have known what was going on with Grisha. ” These lines, the author answers the question, which titled his work. Well in Russia live intellectual Democrat Grisha Dobrosklov. Who is a revolutionary democrat who is ready to fight for the people’s happiness. The feeling that prompted Nekrasov to write a poem is nothing more than a feeling of genuine sincere love for the Russian people. This fact explains the incompleteness of the poem.
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky in his essays spoke of Nekrasov: “The love of the people was in Nekrasov’s way as an outcome of his own sorrow for himself.” In serving with his heart and talent for his people, he found his own cleansing before himself. “The people were a real internal need of him not for some verses. In love for him he found his justification. He exalted his spirit towards the people. He bowed before the people’s truth. î These words express Nekrasov’s need for the people’s love, which was the source of inspiration Nia for his poetry.