The population of North-Eastern Russia consisted of peasants, large, medium and small landowners, clergy, and townspeople.
The Russian peasantry suffered a worse fate than the West European. If in the countries of Western Europe at sunset medieval peasants were released from corvée, in Rus, on the contrary, they were enslaved. At first, the Russian peasant could leave his master if he had cut seven skins from it. But from the middle of the XV century. The peasants were allowed to do this only for two weeks after the completion of agricultural work.
The princes, boyars and monasteries belonged to Votinsky – large estates, which were their property. Average and small service people received from the prince, as a payment for service, smaller estates – Manors. The
German engravings of the XVI century.
An important role in the life of the social elite was played by Mestnichestvo. It determined who could claim for which position, who could be more close to the prince in his retinue, etc. The localities depended on the nobility of the clan and the merits of their ancestors. So, when appointing to the post, not the business qualities of the applicant, but his pedigree, were taken into account. Determine who is noble, it was sometimes very difficult.
In Russian society, as in Byzantine, the vassalage did not take shape, all service people had a single lord – the Grand Duke.
Russian cities were inhabited mainly by artisans and merchants. But they lived in them and the “black people” – the urban lower classes.
Public life in the villages and cities of North-Eastern Russia was unsettled. Riots of peasants and urban bottoms have become commonplace.
The estate is the family estate of the master, his property.
The estate is the state land granted for use for the period of service.
Localism – the struggle for a place in the prince’s court in the Moscow state.