The most important institution of state government in Russia in the pre-Mongol period was the prince’s power. The prince was not only the supreme ruler of the country or the land, but also the legislative administrator of all local life.
In the state administration, the boyars played an important role. They were noble, rich people who belonged to the top of society. Boyars were divided into “big” and “small”. The former, as a rule, became voevods, tysyatskys, princely chancellors. The “small” boyars were occupied by the lower government posts – centenarians, foremen, butlers, etc. The prince’s military squad occupied the privileged position in society. She took part not only in military campaigns, but also in the management of the state or land.
In the XI-XIII centuries. almost in all cities of North-Eastern Russia there was a veche meeting of free citizens.
In the Vladimir-Suzdal Russia in the XIII century. Prince
Vsevolod the Big Nest began to convene great councils, in which clergy, noblemen, rich townspeople took part. These meetings were similar to the bodies of class representation in the countries of Western Europe.
In connection with the Mongol invasion the position of Russian principalities has changed. The supreme suzerain of the Russian princes was the Khan of the Golden Horde. The Veche lost its former strength.
At the beginning of the XIV century. the legislative power was concentrated in the hands of the Grand Duke. The highest government body was the State Council – the Boyar Duma – a permanent body under the Grand Duke. Members of the Duma, he appointed from princely and boyar families.
Important posts of public administration were Treasurer, Pechatnik, Butler. Decisions made by the Boyar Duma or Grand Duke, instructed the Diacs from the small feudal lords. Among them there were many talented people. At the end of the XV century. Central government bodies, subsequently called Orders, began to emerge.
The Moscow state was divided into counties that split up in the volost.
The uyezds were ruled by the governors of the Grand Duke, who were appointed from the boyars. Volosts were led by volosts from small feudal lords. The governors and volost collect taxes, resolve cases, examine complaints, etc. In the local government system, the phenomenon of “feeding” was laid down, according to which the governors and volosts did not receive payments from the treasury, but lived at the expense of the population that was obliged to supply they need everything.
In the process of the formation of the Russian state, the former independent rulers of princedoms, destinies passed into service to the prince. They served the Grand Duke in war and at court. They were called “boyar children” and “nobles”. This way, their lower was emphasized, but compared with. Moscow boyars, the origin. So, together with the old boyar aristocracy, a new one appeared, connected with the grand duke’s court.
Under Ivan III, the local land tenure system was introduced. The nobles were given lands for military and public service, which provided them with material means. The first such distribution of estates was carried out in the Novgorod land.
The cities were inhabited mostly by artisans and merchants, although servants, laborers, beggars lived here.
Peasants, who constituted the bulk of the population of the Russian state, were distinguished for belonging to those whose land they cultivated: princely, patrimonial, local, monastic, etc.
The formation of a great state required clear laws, uniform for the whole country. Because in 1497 the “Sudebnik” was compiled. He defended the life and property of the boyars, landlords and clergy. At the same time, “Sudebnik” initiated the legal registration of the dependence of the peasants. It was clearly defined when a peasant could move from one feudal lord to another: a week before Juriev’s day and within a week after him, provided that the feudal lord “elderly” was obliged to pay for accommodation in his yard.