Romanticism in the n literature of the 19th century – a phenomenon that is wide-ranging and diverse. Formerly, two of its types were divided: conservative and revolutionary. However, this division is too subjective. It would be more correct to divide it into those figures that influenced this current in Europe as a whole and Russian Romanticism in the literature of particular: Hoffman and Byron.
However, if we look at this direction from the point of view of origin, we can not fail to mention the existence of the Derzhavin school at the stage of its formation. Although she was a contemporary of the Karamzinists, she overtook them by innovations. It was Derzhavin who updated the set of expressive means in literature. He opened a lot of potential opportunities, so that romanticism in Russian literature was further developed.
Previous currents (classicism, naturalism, realism and others) sought to accurately reproduce reality. Romanticism, unlike them, purposely rewrites
it. To realize this principle, writers were forced to invent unusual characters, place them in unusual situations, develop a plot in exotic or fictitious lands, use elements of fiction.
Romanticism in Russian literature professed the freedom of the individual, her inner independence, freedom of expression, encouraged the slightest expression of individuality. Derzhavin’s poetry corresponded to these principles in the best way: the speech images used by him, lyricism, combined with emotional vzvinchennostyu. Therefore it is not surprising that this writer was trying to position himself as a pre-romantics. However, judging strictly, Derzhavin’s style did not fully comply with the norms of none of the existing directions. The fact is that he so bizarrely and skillfully combined various styles and genres that in his works alongside the lines of romanticism one can easily find the baroque features. Applying artistic synthesis, Derzhavin for a century ahead of the aspirations of representatives of the Silver Age. Little of, he aspired to the unification of styles not only in literature. He believed that
poetry, by its ability to imitate, should be likened to painting expressed in words.
Gradually, romanticism in Russian literature lost its sentimentalism and increasingly appealed to exotic images, to mysticism, imitating Byron, who became very popular in the West.
At the same time, there was a group of writers “Arzamas”, in which the Karamzinists united. And the Romantics, moving away from sentimentalism, nevertheless remained the recipients of Karamzin, there was a characteristic tendency only for them: they fought passionately for the purification of the literary language. Later in the minds of people captured information that the main role in creating a modern language was played by AS Pushkin, and not his predecessor. Even those innovations that were known to be known as Kramramzin were attributed to Pushkin. This happened for the reason that the language of the latter was embodied in stronger literary texts.
In their understanding of the purity of the literary language, the Karamzinists relied on the old French grammar of Port Royal, which was imported into Russia in the 19th century and for some time became extremely fashionable. On its basis, even several textbooks were published. In the future, many times philologists of different times addressed her. This is due to the universal nature of the grammar of Port Royal.
In contrast to the Karamzinists, there was a “troop of Slavs”, which had completely different ideas about the language and was distinguished by a more difficult, rough syllable. If we do not take into account the details that are clear and well-known to narrow specialists, then the struggle between these societies can be called a struggle between two types of romantics.
After the death of Derzhavin and his followers, romanticism in Russian literature finally acquired the features preached by the “Arzamas” line.