Culture and art of the Arab world in the Middle Ages

Not only the Arabs, but also other peoples of the Caliphate who took up Islam, the Arabic language and writing took part in the formation of Arab culture.

Successfully developed in the Arab world natural sciences: mathematics, astronomy, geography, medicine. Arab mathematicians have created algebra.

In Baghdad and Damascus already in the IX. there were Observatories. The scientist Al-Biruni suggested that the Earth revolves around the Sun, and not vice versa. Tajik Ibn-Sina has developed a medical system that the East and West used for six centuries. Arab astronomy was closely connected with astrology, and chemistry with alchemy.

Universities and large libraries were opened in the largest cities of the Caliphate.

Arabic literature flourished. Arab poets celebrated military feats, a nomadic life. The poet Firdousi folded a large poem “Shahname”, dedicated to the exploits of the legendary heroes. Great fairy tales were written about amazing adventures

and travel, about clever and cunning people. They eventually entered the collection “A Thousand and One Nights”.

The Arabs built magnificent cities. So, settling in Spain, they built there Cordova, where – wonder wonderful! – the streets were paved and lighted at night.

The best monuments of medieval Arab architecture were majestic palaces, mosques, schools and universities. In the Spanish city of Granada, the beautiful Alhambra, built in the 11th-14th centuries, is preserved. His light columns hold on themselves overlappings, as if woven from lace. Near the mosque, in a courtyard with a swimming pool, surrounded by covered galleries, the Arabs built the Minaret, Madrasah, mausoleums.

Arab masters made wonderful bronze vessels in the form of animals and birds.

XIII century. From the work of the Iranian historian Ibn Isfendiar

The man presented him a bowl decorated with precious stones, made in the form of a cock with precious rubies inserted instead of eyes. He took the gift and gave it to him. And one day the ruler was informed that the man was boasting that

no one had made such a service to the ruler. He ordered to organize a feast and to invite the owner of the cock and 500 more guests. Before each put a rooster, even more beautiful than the first. The man felt ashamed, he got up, kissed the ground and apologized. The ruler seated him, gave him a cock and gave them two more.

The Arabs considered art as Calligraphy. Calligraphers and poets often held high posts in the Caliphate. The space between the letters of the Arabs from time to time filled with floral ornaments, and this gave the Arabesque – the intricacies of the Arabic script – a special fascination. No other letter has as many fonts as Arabic.

The medieval West borrowed a lot of scientific knowledge from the Arabs, the production of paper. From Arab Spain spread the works of many ancient scientists in Europe. The Arabs taught the Europeans to draw maps, use a globe and a compass. From the Arabs Europeans got the words “zenith”, “algebra”, “alchemy”, “almanac”, etc.

Observatory is a scientific institution in which, with the help of special instruments, they observe the celestial bodies and study them.

The minaret is a tower at the mosque, from which Muslims are invited to pray.

Madrasah is the highest theological school for Muslims.

Arabesque – a combination of floral ornament with an Arabic inscription.

Calligraphy is an art that is legible, clean and beautiful to write.

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Culture and art of the Arab world in the Middle Ages