The city in the Middle Ages. Description
The city was located so that it was convenient to surround it with a protective wall, but that the environment should serve as protection for it.
The first medieval cities were surrounded by an earthen rampart and a wooden palisade, the later ones were already renewed with one, two or even three stone battlements with round towers. In the city, as well as in the feudal castle, it was possible to get through only a drawbridge and a narrow gate, which for the night reliably closed. Near the city gate towered the gallows with the bodies of the hanged – a warning for those who do not get along with justice. From the gate to the city led a street, laid somehow and, of course, not paved. In the middle of the roadway there is a gutter with slurry flowing out of the passages. In the heat on the street there is nothing to breathe because of the dust and stench, and after the rain along it neither to pass nor pass. In the middle of the XV century. on one of these streets he nearly
Town houses with steep red roofs closely adjoined to each other and in most cases were wooden, so fires often destroyed the city to the ground. The house had several floors, stretched upwards. The floors formed protrusions that hung over the street. The adjacent houses almost touched each other with their upper floors. In the house there was an attic with a window and a block for raising hay, straw, grain – stocks for the winter.
Each family had its own house, more precisely, a farm with a garden and a garden, a stable, a shed, a cellar, a grapevilla, etc. The manor was surrounded by a secure wall, the entrance to the house and the windows were closed with a massive door and shutters. In a word, almost everything was in the
The city houses did not have numbering, it was replaced by recognition marks – Bas-reliefs on religious subjects, sculptural portraits of the owners, etc. The squares of individual Italian cities were decorated with fountains – the remains of antique luxury.
The main architectural decoration of the medieval city was the cathedral, whose bell tower beat time and informed the townspeople about the fire, enemy attack or outbreak of the epidemic.
At the end of the Middle Ages, town halls appeared in the cities, in which the city council, covered markets, hospitals, colleges and noisy student dormitories, warehouses, etc. were built. Bani in the medieval city, unlike the ancient city, was rare and also struck by its anti-sanitation.
So, the medieval cities in Europe were deprived of elementary comfort, outwardly unattractive.
At the same time, the cities were well provided with food. Around them, closer to their walls, behind which in the event of an enemy attack it was possible to hide, the farmers settled. Every day they arrived at the city market with their carts laden with various foodstuffs, for every taste and purse.
XII cent. From an ancient description of the city of London
People of different professions, sellers of different goods and all day laborers take their places every morning, each depending on his occupation. On the banks of the river in London, among the wine shops available on ships and in cellars, is open to all taverns. Here daily, depending on the season, it was possible to find grated, fried, boiled food, large and small fish, rough meat for the poor and better for the rich, game and different birds… No matter how many warriors and parishioners arrive in the city or left him, at any time of the day or night, neither of them remained hungry.
Bas-relief is a sculptural image on a plane in which convex figures protrude above the surface not more than half their volume.