Hungary in the Middle Ages

The lands between the rivers Tisza and the Danube were inhabited long ago by Slavic tribes and, perhaps, by the ancestors of modern Romanians and Moldavians. At the end of IX c. there were migrated through the Carpathians Ugrians, who were pressed from the southern Russian steppes of the Pechenegs. They defeated the Great Moravian state, captured Pannonia and the eastern part of Moravia. Ugra became a thunderstorm for Western and Southern Europe. They ceased their devastating raids only in the late 10th century. About 1000, the Hungarian prince Istvan united his country and became king. So there was the Hungarian state. In it, Catholicism spread.

In the XI-XII century. Hungarian kings had to fight off German and Byzantine emperors. And in 1241, Hungary was attacked by the Mongol-Tatars. They reached the Adriatic and suddenly turned to Russia. This saved Hungary from “closer” acquaintance with the Mongol-Tatars. The Hungarian nobility subjugated Dalmatia and Southern

Croatia and tried to do the same with the Galicia-Volyn principality.

Feudalism in Hungary was established gradually, the cities appeared late and did not play a special role in political life. The royal power was weak. In the country, large feudal lords were robbed. To protect themselves from their willfulness, the nobles in 1222 forced the king to sign the “Golden Bull”. This decree granted them benefits and, in its meaning, was very much like the English Charter of liberties. In the second half of HTTT in. kings, who were elected by the Seimas, became a toy in the hands of the feudal nobility. In the XV century. in Hungary the estate monarchy was finally formed.

Meanwhile, another terrible disaster has fallen on Hungary. In 1526 the Turkish army defeated the Czech army. Eastern Hungary went to the Turks, the Western to the Austrians. Hungary for several centuries lost its independence.

The Sejm is a representative authority in Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland.

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Hungary in the Middle Ages