The architecture and influence of the church on it in the Middle Ages. Gothick style

In medieval Europe, architecture and art felt a strong church influence. This was due to the fact that the church culture was understandable and accessible, and the church – the main customer of architectural structures and works of art.

Until the XI century. In the European church architecture, the Romanesque style dominated. It was formed on the basis of the Roman Basil, so it was called Roman, that is, Roman. The plan for the Romanesque church was in the form of a Latin cross. This building had thick walls, cracks instead of windows, a semicircular arch and the same arch, massive columns. It was like a fortress.

Romanesque buildings: the cathedral in Speyer. XI-XII centuries; Church of Mary in Laax, XII century.

The walls of the Romanesque church were painted by artists. Most often depicted terrible scenes of suffering and anguish, for the church assured that man “will be saved” only through suffering. There were also non-Christian images –

jugglers, hunters, beasts, monsters, etc.

Gothic constructions: the town hall in Louvain, XV century; Notre-Dame Cathedral of the XII-XIII centuries.

Architectural monuments of medieval Europe were also feudal castles and monasteries, which looked like monasteries.

Когда в Европе выросли города, на смену романскому стилю пришел готический. Родиной его была Франция. В готическом стиле строились преимущественно соборы и городские ратуши. В отличие от приземистых романских зданий готические соборы своими островерхими башнями и стрельчатыми арками устремлялись вверх. Иногда они достигали высоты современного 40-этажного небоскреба. Для этого строители применили новую конструкцию свода и внешние опорные столбы. Готический

собор имел легкие колонны, стены, покрытые кружевом каменной резьбы и многочисленными статуями. Изумительной красоты окна соборов были сделаны из цветного стекла и заменяли настенные росписи, их назвали витражами. Разноцветные стеклышки витражей изображали религиозные и бытовые сцены, рыцарские турниры и т. п.

Nephi of the largest Gothic cathedrals were placed to 10 thousand people – residents of the whole city. Such cathedrals were built by several generations of craftsmen for dozens, or even hundreds of years.

The sculpture of the Gothic cathedrals was more plastic and attractive than the early medieval cathedral.

Basilica – a rectangular building, which in ancient Rome was intended for court sessions, etc., then it became the main type of the Christian church.

Nephi – church rooms separated by a number of pillars or columns. There are medium, lateral and transverse naves.

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The architecture and influence of the church on it in the Middle Ages. Gothick style