Schools and universities in the Middle Ages. Foci of Education and Culture

The European Middle Ages borrowed the school education system from antiquity, but enriched it, adapted it to new conditions.

In the Middle Ages, both secular and secular schools were opened. They studied the children of feudal lords, townspeople, clergy, well-to-do peasants. The schools taught “seven free arts”: grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music. Up to the end of the Middle Ages teaching was carried out in Latin and only from the XIV century. – national languages.

At school, both children and adults studied in the same class. The children were treated with all severity in the school: they were forbidden loudly to talk, sing, play, punished for any offense. Schoolchildren themselves extracted a piece of bread. They worked part-time, but more often they asked for charity. At night they sang religious songs under the windows of the townspeople. More precisely, they did not sing, they shouted all the way to “lift

the respectable burgher from the bed and force him to rush off the terrible melody thrown through a window with a piece of sausage or cheese.”

Read at school learned from the Bible, the works of St. Augustine, the Code of Justinian. A test of knowledge was the Disciples of the student with the pupil, the student with the teacher.

In the XIII century. schools in the largest cities turned into higher educational institutions – Universities. The first European university originated in the Italian town of Bologna. University in the Italian city of Salerno became the center of medical knowledge, in the French city of Paris – the center of theology. In 1500, there were already about 70 such centers of knowledge and culture in Europe. In the XIV-XV centuries. in the countries of Europe, especially in England, there were also colleges.

Teaching in medieval universities was as follows. The professor read the manuscript folio in Latin, explaining the complicated places in the text. The students were sleeping peacefully. Proof from such teaching was not enough, but before the invention in the

middle of XV century. book printing in another way to organize teaching could not, since hand-written books were not enough and they cost very dearly. Printed books became an accessible source of knowledge and implemented a real revolution in the education system.

Until the XII century. books were kept mainly in small monastery libraries. They were so rare and expensive that they were sometimes chained. Later, they also acquired universities, royal courts, big feudal lords, even wealthy townspeople. In the XV century. in large cities there were public libraries.

Dispute is an oral scientific dispute.

The colleges are closed secondary or higher educational institutions.

The university is a higher educational institution, training specialists in many areas of knowledge and engaged in scientific work.

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Schools and universities in the Middle Ages. Foci of Education and Culture