Bibliographic Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Abelard Pierre. An outstanding thinker of medieval Europe. The predecessor of the scholastics. I sought reinforcement of the dogma of reason, so I inevitably fell into heresy. The church condemned him for “the impudence with which he delves into divine secrets.” I wrote a brilliant memo of medieval literature – “The History of My Disasters”. He was envious, he was persecuted. He died in the Cluny convent.

Alquin Flacc Albin. Outstanding representative of the “Carolingian revival”. Founded at the court of Charlemagne schools, libraries, workshops for rewriting books. He advocated the education of children not only in theology, but also in the “human sciences” – literacy and philosophy.

Al-Biruni. An outstanding Central Asian linguist, historian, mathematician, astronomer. He wrote in Arabic. He wrote a fundamental work on India.

Alfred the Great *. The King of England. Tirelessly led the struggle against

the raids of the Normans-Danes. Formed in the north-east of England the area of ​​the Danish law – Danlo. Has published a new collection of laws. First proposed a tax in England. Wrapped up by education, science.

Boleslaw I the Brave. Until 1025 the Polish prince, after – the king. He brought Krakow land to his possessions and completed the unification of Polish territories into a single state. In the war with the Germans, he retained the independence of Poland. 1018, Mr.. carried out a military campaign against Kievan Rus to put on the throne of Kiev his son-in-law Svyatopolk, and briefly took over Kiev. After suffered a military defeat from the Kiev Prince Yaroslav the Wise and retreated.

Basil II of the Bulgarian. Byzantine emperor. During his reign, Byzantium reached the peak of its power. 1014 g. Conquered the Bulgarian kingdom and again annexed the Byzantine Balkan peninsula, torn away by the Slavs. Expanded the borders of the Byzantine Empire from Armenia to the Adriatic, from the Danube to the Euphrates.

Villon Francois. French poet, “the last vagant.” Early orphaned,

became the son of a priest named. He studied at the Sorbonne, was a participant in the “war” between schoolchildren and the townspeople of Paris for the boundary stone. He was involved with ragamuffins and podzabornikami, repeatedly got to the dock and to prison. I wrote touching poems about my stormy life.

Wilgelm the conqueror. Since 1035, the Duke of Normandy. In 1066, defeated the army of the English king near Hastings and was crowned on the English throne. Redistributed the English lands in favor of the Norman and French feudal lords. Compiled the “Book of the Last Judgment” – carried out a census of the English population.

Henry II Plantagenet. The son of the granddaughter of William the Conqueror and Count of Anjou. From the mother inherited England, from his father – a considerable territory of France. 1151, Mr.. married with Alienora Aquitaine and received her Aquitaine. He founded the Angevin dynasty. Carried out a series of reforms aimed at strengthening the royal power. Vainly tried to subordinate the crown to the Church of England. He quarreled with the Archbishop of Canterbury and was accused by the church of his murder. As a result, he refused to encroach on the church authorities.

Gus Yang. The Czech thinker. Head of the University of Prague and preacher of the Bethlehem Chapel in Prague. Condemned the trade in church positions and indulgences, he advocated for the service not in Latin, but in Czech. He was charged with heresy and burned. The death penalty of Jan Hus caused a surge in the Czech Hussite movement for church reforms and against German domination in the country.

Dante Alighieri. An outstanding Italian poet, the author of “The Divine Comedy.” In this work Dante described a mental journey together with the Roman poet Virgil for the three kingdoms of the other world – hell, purgatory and solar heavenly spheres. This forerunner of the new European literature was recreated in the poem by many great men of the Middle Ages, then-rulers of doom.

Joan of Arc. The national heroine of France. During the unsuccessful year for the country, the course of the Hundred Years’ War led the French army, compelled the British to lift the siege of Orleans, ensured the coronation of the Dauphin Charles VII in Reims. Raised the morale of the French, so they began to defeat the British invaders. She was captured by the British, who accused her of heresy and burnt in 1431, 500 years later, the church proclaimed her a saint.

Zizka Ian. The activist of the Hussite movement, the commander, the national hero of the Czech Republic. Hetman Taborites. He died of the plague.

Ibn Sina. An outstanding medieval Arab physician, philosopher, poet. His work “The Canon of Medical Science” served as the foundation of European medicine until the XVII century.

Ivan III. Grand Duke of Moscow, “Sovereign of All Russia”. Completed the formation of a single Moscow state, which at the end of the XV century. they also began to call Russia. He has attached a number of appanage principalities to the Moscow Grand Duchy and the Novgorod boyar republic. In 1480 he gained independence of the Moscow state from the Horde. In 1497, Mr.. issued the Code of Law – the first national legislation.

Charlemagne. King of the Franks. An outstanding statesman, commander. Having won the battles of the Lombards, Arabs, Saxons, Avars, etc., he formed an empire. In 800, Pope Leo III crowned him emperor of the West. He cared for religion and culture. Historians called him “the father of Europe.”

Carl Martell. Mayor of the Franks, “almost king.” He carried out military campaigns in the north of the country and in Aquitaine. Defeated the Spanish Arabs in the Battle of Poitiers. Carried out the famous beneficiary reform, which at first helped to centralize the state and initiated the medieval chivalry.

Otto I the Great. The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. In 955, Mr.. defeated on the territory of Germany militant eels, putting an end to their raids on the West.

Timur. Commander and ruler of Central Asia. Formed an extensive empire with its capital in Samarkand. Ruined the Golden Horde, defeated the troops of the Ottoman Sultan Baezid I Lightning. I made trips to India and China.

Thomas Aquinas. The monk is a Dominican. He asserted that faith and reason do not oppose each other, that real knowledge can be drawn from both the Holy Letter and the scientific search. His teaching became the basis of Catholic theology.

Theodora. The Byzantine Empress, the wife of Emperor Justinian, a former circus actress. Powerfully interfered in state policy, diplomacy, church affairs, her orders were carried out in the Empire unconditionally. Helped miserable, especially disadvantaged women. Justinian did not give birth to children.

Philip II August. The King of France. Participated in the Third Crusade. Greatly expanded the royal possessions in the state and strengthened the royal power.

Philip IV the Beautiful. The King of France. Strengthened the influence of the crown on the papacy – moved the abode of the pope to the French city of Avignon. With the consent of Pope Clement V, he arrested the Templars and committed judicial reprisal over them, taking their treasures to the state treasury. The General States convened for the first time, placing in the state the beginning of a class monarchy.

Firdausi. An outstanding Persian-Tajik poet, the author of the heroic epic “Shah-name” – “The Book of Kings.”

Friedrich I of Barbarossa. Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Participated in the Crusades. He conquered the south of Italy and Fr. Sicily.

Clovis. King of the Franks. He carried out extensive conquests in Gaul. In 496, the first of the European monarchs adopted the Christianity of the Latin rite. During his reign, “Salic Truth” was compiled – the first collection of francs’ laws.

Chaucer Jeffrey. The founder of English poetry and English literary language. He was glorified by his “Canterbury Tales”, in which he faithfully portrayed representatives of different classes of the then English society.

Yury Dolgoruky. Ancient Russian prince. Knyazhil simultaneously in Rostov, Suzdal, Kiev. He ordered to erect the wooden walls of the Moscow Kremlin. He died in Kiev. Dolgorukim called it chroniclers because of constant interference in the affairs of the Kiev principality.

Justinian. Emperor of Byzantium. He conducted an aggressive policy of conquest. He ordered to collect disparate Roman laws in a large collection – “Code of Civil Law.” During the reign of Justinian in Constantinople, the majestic temple of Hagia Sophia was built.

* Hereinafter, the years of the reign of the monarchs and popes are indicated.

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Bibliographic Dictionary of the Middle Ages