Environmental problems are complex situations that arise in connection with human intervention in natural processes that lead to a violation of the equilibrium of natural complexes, entail a change in these complexes or their complete destruction.
One of the largest environmental problems in Africa is the gradual increase in the desert area. For example, the Sahara desert moves south every year with a strip reaching a width of 5-7 km. The reason for this is human activity: deforestation, destruction of grass cover with excessive grazing. Desertification occurs fairly quickly. Measures taken by a person are not yet effective enough.
To stop the Sahara offensive on the savannah, the governments of the neighboring states agreed to create a so-called “green belt” 20-30 km wide. Here, the date palm, acacia, evergreen Australian eucalyptus are planted.
A major environmental problem is the destruction of wet and variable-moist forests of the equatorial belt of Africa. Individual African countries are chopping valuable tree species in pursuit of quick profits. In the African guilleaux, the vicious practice of clearing soils under arable land for agriculture with the help of fire has also spread. The burnt wood burns out, and the earth is fertilized with ashes. After a few years, the soil in this area is depleted, and the man releases more and more areas from the forest. As a result, only half of the primary areas of the African forest remained. And this despite the fact that the moist equatorial forests, but figurative expression, are “the lungs of our planet.”
Another serious problem is the decrease in the savanna of wild animals. Due to the active development of natural territories by people, plowing of land, breeding of domestic animals, wild animals are replaced. In addition, the huge problem of Africa is poaching, which led to a sharp decrease in the number of wild animals, especially elephants, rhinoceroses, giraffes, etc.
Africa is a treasury of minerals. It “signed the verdict” to the natural complexes of many of its territories. In places of development of minerals, these complexes have been radically changed by man. In particular, in the 50’s. XX century. Large deposits of oil were discovered in the Sahara, and oil refineries were built over time. This significantly changed the nature of the field oilfields.