(Maeterlinck) Maurice (29. 8.1862, Gent, – 5.5.1949, Nice, France), a Belgian writer. I wrote in French. He was born in the family of a notary. He studied law in Paris. Since 1896 he lived in France. The idealistic symbolist views of early M (set forth in the book The Treasure of the Humble, 1896) – the reaction of protest against bourgeois positivism and the lack of wings of naturalistic art. In 1889 a collection of poems by M. “Teplice” was published, in 1896 – a collection of “12 songs” (in 1900 – “15 songs”). The man in the early plays of M. is a victim of rock (the fairy tale “Princess Malen”, 1889, one-act plays “Untested”, “Blind”, both 1890; drama “Peleas and Melisande”, 1892); It is a drama of silence, hints and omissions. In the play “The Death of the Tentage” (1894), the theme of a riot against rock is outlined. In the fairy-tale plays “Aglavena and Selizetta” and “Ariana and Bluebeard” (both 1896), not only victims but also wrestlers are shown. The book “Wisdom and Fate” (1898) opens the cycle of an essay on questions of knowledge and ethics. In the work “The Secret Temple” (1902), M. calls for creative and social activity; During this period, M. is close to socialist circles. The drama “Sister Beatriz” (1900) is directed against asceticism, it celebrates a full-blooded life. The historical drama “Monna Bath” (1902) affirms the heroic deed for the sake of the Motherland. In the articles of these years, M. opposes fatalism in life and art. The play “The Miracle of Saint Anthony” (1903) is a sharp anti-bourgeois satire. In 1905, M. created a play-fairy tale “The Blue Bird”, full of faith in the victory of man over the forces of nature, hunger, war.
In the years of World War I (1914-18), the Moscow publicist branded German militarism. The play “Betrothal” (1918) continues the story of one of the heroes of the “Blue Bird”. Plays written later are less significant (“Burgomaster Stiemond” and “Salt of the Earth”, 1919; “Jeanne d’Arc”, 1945, etc.). The tragedy of Belgium occupied by the German army in 1914, the crisis of Belgian social democracy pushed M. out of public issues. Treatises M. “The Life of Space” (1928), “In the Face of God” (1937), etc. are full of mysticism. M. belong to natural-philosophical books “The Life of Bees” (1901), “The Mind of Flowers” (1907), “The Life of Termites” (1926), “The Life of Ants” (1930), where observations of nature are imbued with anthropomorphism.
In 1940, M. went to the United States, returned to France in 1947. Wrote memoirs “Blue Bubbles (happy memories)” (1948). Humanistic plays of the M. of the period 1896-1918 entered the repertoire of the world theater. The Nobel Prize (1911).