Krakhmalnikova Zoya Aleksandrovna (born 14.01.1929, Kharkov). Parents K. early dispersed, and she was brought up by her stepfather. After his arrest in 1936, K. remained with her mother, an engineer-economist.
After graduation in 1954 the Literary Institute. Gorky studied at the graduate school of the Institute of World Literature of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and worked at the publishing house Sovetskii pisatel, in the journal Molodaya Gvardiya, in Literaturnaya gazeta. In the 1960s and 1970s, she was published as a critic in the journals Novy Mir, Znamya, Molodaya Gvardiya and Literaturnaya gazeta. He is the author of several literary books and several dozen articles. I was engaged in translations. Member of the USSR Union of Journalists. She married F. Svetov.
After defending in 1967 the thesis (“Creativity Aadu Hinta”) worked as a research fellow at the Institute of Sociology of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1971, she came to Orthodoxy, for which she was dismissed from work in 1974 and deprived of the opportunity to be published in the USSR.
Since 1971 she was engaged in religious activities, she wrote several books and articles distributed in samizdat and tamizdat (in the journals Grani and Vestnik RKhD). The main theme of K. were the problems of religious revival in Russia.
In 1976, K. began to produce a samizdat typewritten collection of “Hope (Christian reading).” The collection was published openly, the name of the editor-composer K. stood on the cover. “Hope” continued the traditions of the pre-revolutionary church magazine, whose name was its subtitle. The publication received a blessing from the hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad. The collection was intended for people of different educational levels and different degrees of involvement in the church and Orthodoxy. “Hope” was a purely religious publication, which had historical and educational character, which was fundamentally outside of politics.
K. collected for Hope unknown in the USSR texts: the writings of the Holy Fathers, pastoral messages and teachings of Orthodox ascetics, testimonies of the new martyrs of the ROC (letters from exile priests and bishops), contemporary works on... Orthodox theology. The collection published “pastoral talks” D. Dudko. K. printed in “Hope” and their articles on Orthodox culture.
Over time, the collection began to be reprinted in the West in the publishing house “Sowing” and distributed in the USSR in typographical form.
K. managed to make ten numbers. K. was arrested on August 4, 1982 (after her arrest, the release of “Hope” was carried out anonymously). She was accused of compiling a collection of “Hope” and transferring it to the West, writing religious articles, writing or signing letters in defense of T. Velikanova and Dudko, distribution of Dudko’s book “On Our Hope”. K. guilty herself did not recognize. 04/01/1983 Moscow City Court under art. 70 part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR. K. was sentenced to one year in prison and five years of exile. Given the time spent in prison during the investigation, she was almost immediately sent into exile in the Gorno-Altaisk region. Released in June 1987 as part of the Gorbachev campaign to pardon political prisoners.
Since the late 1980s, she published in various periodicals articles on the current situation of the ROC. The cycle of her works “The bitter fruit of sweet captivity” (on the relationship between the ROC and the Soviet state) was published in 1988-1990 in Canada, America and Australia. He adheres to the opinion of the need for repentance of the highest hierarchs of the ROC in front of the people.
In 1994, K. became a compiler and one of the authors of the collection “The Russian Idea and the Jews: A Fatal Controversy: Christianity, Anti-Semitism, Nationalism.”
In 1995 she published her book “Listen, prison!”, Which included “Lefortovskie zapiski” and “Letters from exile”. The book describes the experiences of a believer who is imprisoned for his religious views and sees his conclusion as a way of the cross. After the publication of the book, the discussion “The Man and His Faith” was held, in which writers, religious figures and human rights activists took part.
Lives in Moscow.
Papovyan A. G.
The materials of the journal UFO