(born May 26, 1936)
Gorbanevskaya Natalya Evgenievna (born 26.05.1936, Moscow). The daughter of a typist. In 1953 she entered the philological faculty of Moscow State University; was engaged in a literary studio; put poetry in the faculty wall newspaper. She graduated from the correspondence faculty of Leningrad State University in 1963. She worked in Moscow editorial offices. Translated into Russian verses from Slavonic (mostly from Polish) and Romance languages. His own poems were almost never published.
While studying at Moscow State University in March-July 1957 was involved as a witness in the case of her friends who distributed leaflets in connection with the Hungarian events; gave evidence that interested the investigation.
Since 1959, G.’s poems have been
In 1967 – early 1968, she participated in the petition campaign around the “process of the four”, spoke in defense of other persons who had been persecuted for ideological reasons. In February 1968, Mr.. G. for the first time forcibly placed in a psychiatric hospital. Kashchenko, but soon discharged. The story of her violent hospitalization was described in the essay “Free medical care”, which was distributed in samizdat.
In April 1968, G. begins to release the “Chronicle of Current Events”, under its edition are the first ten issues. Chosen G. is reserved, non-price style of presentation and submission of materials aimed at an objective coverage of events related to human rights violations in the USSR, preserved in the “Chronicle of Current Events” until the publication is closed.
08/25/1968 G. takes part in the “demonstration of the seven” on Red Square. Was detained together with other demonstrators, but on the same day after the search was released. The authorities decided to show humanity (and avoid an international scandal), since G. was a single mother who had two young children. She told about the demonstration in a letter addressed to the editors of Western newspapers.
In connection with the criminal case brought against G. on the fact of the demonstration, a psychiatric examination was carried out, which recognized her as insane. However, G. was not sent for compulsory treatment, but was placed in the care of his mother. Later (in late 1969) G. achieved the conclusion of Moscow’s chief psychiatrist IK Yanushevsky that he was not sick with schizophrenia and did not need to be placed in a psychiatric hospital.
From the autumn of 1968 to the summer of 1969, G. worked on a documentary collection “Noon: The Case of a Demonstration on Red Square”; the collection was distributed in samizdat and was published abroad (translated into major European languages).
She took part in the creation of the Initiative Group for the Protection of Human Rights in the USSR (20.05.1969), became its member.
She was repeatedly subjected to searches. 24.12.1969 G. was arrested. She was charged under art. 190-1 Criminal Code of the RSFSR and Art. 191 (“resistance to authorities with bodily harm”), namely: participation in the “demonstration of seven” on August 25, 1968, the writing and distribution of a letter about this demonstration and the essay “Free medical care”, signatures under the documents of the Action Team, participation in the publication “Chronicles of current events,” as well as the incident at the time of the search (G. pushed the hand of a KGB officer, as a result of which he cut his finger).
In April 1970 at the Institute. Serbian was found insane.
By the decision of 7.07.1970 of the Moscow City Court it is directed to compulsory treatment in a psychiatric hospital of a special type.
Until 23.10.1971 she was kept in the Kazan special psychiatric hospital, then transferred to Butyrskaya prison; 02/22/1972 was released. After liberation she returned to Moscow. I signed petitions in defense of G. Superfin, L. Plyushch, obituary Yu. Galanskov.
12/17/1975 G. emigrated and settled in France. Immediately began to work in the magazine “Continent” (until 1992), first as executive secretary, then as deputy editor-in-chief; has released several poetry collections. Since 1976 she was a foreign representative of the editorial board of the samizdat historical collection “Memory”.
In Russia, G. published since 1990, regularly comes to his homeland.
Lives in Paris, cooperates in the newspaper “Russian thought”.
The materials of the magazine UFO