Relief of Africa

The structure of the earth’s crust of the continent determines its relief. Considering the physical map of Africa, we can conclude that the continent consists of elevated plains. Lowlands and high mountains are few. Lowlands are located mainly along the coasts of the seas and oceans.

The eastern part of Africa occupies a rather high East African plateau, formed within the shield of the ancient platform. Here are the highest peaks of the continent, the active and extinct volcanoes. The highest peak in Africa is the Kilimanjaro volcano.

North of the East African plateau lies the Ethiopian Highlands – a huge mountain range with chains of high mountains and many separate extinct volcanoes. They arose from multiple outpourings of magma within the East African rift. High rising above the surrounding plains, the highlands abruptly break off in the east, and in the west it is reduced by ledges, split fissures.

In the south-east are the Drakensberg Mountains, terraces descending to the interior of the mainland. They are raised arrays on the edges of the ancient platform.

In the extreme south of Africa there are old, badly destroyed low flat-topped Cape mountains that arose at the end of the Paleozoic era. about 300 million years ago.

In the north-west of the mainland are the Atlas Mountains. It is a young massif formed in the Cenozoic era on the edge of the African lithospheric plate. The Atlas ranges extend along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

Thus, in terms of height above sea level, Africa is divided into two parts: Low Africa with heights of up to 1000 m, covering the northern and western parts of the continent, and High Africa with altitudes of more than 1000 m above sea level, which include the eastern and southern parts.

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Relief of Africa