The process of including a student in a system of collective relations is complex, ambiguous, often contradictory and deeply individual. Schoolchildren-future members of the collective differ from each other in health status, appearance, character traits, a degree of sociability, knowledge, skills, many other traits and qualities. Therefore, they enter differently into the system of collective relations, cause unequal reaction on the part of comrades, and exert an unequal influence on the collective.
The position of the individual in the system of collective relations largely depends on her individual social experience, which determines the nature of her judgments, the system of value orientations, the line of behavior. This experience may or may not correspond to the judgments, values and traditions of behavior that have evolved in the team. There are three most common models of the development of the relationship between the individual and the team. 1) the personality
submits to the collective (it can either obey the demands of the collective naturally and voluntarily, or yield to it as an external superior force, or try to continue to maintain its independence and individuality, obeying the collective only formally); 2) the individual and the collective are in optimal relations; 3) personality subjugates the collective.
The relationship of the individual with the peer group at different age stages is different. In the first year of training, they are largely determined by the teacher through the organization of educational activities of children. Younger schoolchildren cooperate with each other, first of all, as representatives of a certain social community – students. The nature of their interpersonal relationships is determined primarily by the influence of the teacher, his evaluation, the assertion in the class of humane values and norms of communication. The organization under the guidance of the teacher extra-curricular interesting collective affairs helps to establish a microclimate of cooperation in the classroom. mutual assistance, understanding and friendship.
that is, to create a certain socio-cultural environment for the positive development of the individual.
In secondary school, the nominal education “class” becomes real. Children develop a sense of “we are a community”, “we are a collective”, which is expressed in the desire to declare themselves not only in the classroom, but also within the framework of school life. The activity that is being formed at this age acquires the character of developed cooperation on the basis of an independent formulation of the goal, the development of a plan, and a general anticipation of the results. Mutual relations of adolescents become more selective, there are stable friendships. The goal of interaction is the desire to be and act together, to make a personal contribution to the achievement of the overall result.
Given the characteristics of the adolescent (the desire for social cohesion, unity with peers, combined with independence), the teacher primarily takes the position of indirect influence on the nature of collective ties and relationships, encouraging schoolchildren to show initiative and creativity. The more important personally motivated children are involved in joint activities, the more interesting it becomes for them. Organizing micro-collectives by interests, the teacher draws students to classes in circles, sections, general school activities.
The peculiarity of the relations between the pupils of the upper grades is the desire to “translate” the significant individual qualities to peers and the group’s readiness to integrate the individual manifestations of classmates for the successful implementation of group activities. Senior adolescents are characterized by a pronounced orientation to the future life, profession, an expanded sphere of social contacts, a sufficiently high level of development of self-awareness. Given these features, the teacher creates conditions for a broad and multifaceted manifestation of self-reliance, self-organization, initiative of the classroom. In such a collective, the unique personality of a teenager is revealed in an atmosphere of creative self-realization.
Thus, during the school age, the children’s team, under the guidance of the teacher, becomes a socio-cultural entity with a developed system of social ties and the unification of children, striving for common goals, cooperation, and achieving meaningful results.
Characterizing the characteristics of the children’s collective at different age stages, it is possible to single out some general points connected with the entry of a person into the society. This process, according to AV Petrovsky, includes several phases.
1. Adaptation of the individual in the team assumes active assimilation of the norms acting in the given community and the mastery of the corresponding forms and means of activity.
2. Individualization of the individual in the team is born of a contradiction between the adaptability achieved in the team and the unmet need for maximum personalization.
3. Integration of the individual in the collective is manifested in the fact that the collective takes on the personality, evaluates its individual characteristics. Personality, in turn, establishes cooperative relations with members of the collective. During this period, it has the opportunity to show its individuality and creative contribution to collective activity most fully.
The collective fully demonstrates its positive role in the development of the personality, provided that the subject successfully passes all phases, which determines the development of the public orientation and the formation of the subject’s position of the individual in communication and cooperation with other people.