1. What are the features of the similarities and differences between the natural zones of South America and Africa.
You already know that distinguishing features of similarities and differences is a method of comparison. Carefully study the maps of the natural areas of South America and Africa. Performing task 2 after 42, you compared the climate of these two continents, the obtained knowledge can be used by comparing the natural zones. Differences in the nature of the continents are most related to differences in climatic conditions. Within each climatic zone a specific natural zone is formed. Both in South America and in Africa there is an equatorial climate and a natural zone of moist equatorial forests. There are subequatorial, tropical and subtropical belts, which means that the corresponding natural zones are repeated when moving north and south from the equator. Both in Africa and in South America there are savannahs, but in South America they occupy much less area than in Africa.
In South America, unlike Africa, the savannas are replaced in the south by a zone of steppes called here a pampa. Pampa, translated from the language of the Indians of South America, means “a space devoid of trees”. Pampa is the dominance of herbs and fast-moving animals. In South America, unlike in Africa, there is a temperate climate with a small amount of precipitation. In such conditions, the semi-desert of Patagonia was formed with the dominance of cereals and
2. Take an imaginary journey into the jungle, savannah or pampa and prepare a story in the form of a diary, a report, a memoir, a letter.
Your story should be interesting and informative. Let us dwell on the approximate plan for preparing a report on the perfect journey.
Route of travel. Well, if you specify the specific points through which the route passes and where there were stops. Description of climatic conditions along the route. It is necessary to tell about the day and night temperatures, the amount of precipitation. It is important to show that you took into account the climatic conditions when selecting equipment and your equipment. Characteristics of soils, highlighting differences. Characteristics of vegetation with an indication of species composition and plant characteristics. Characteristics of the animal world, a description of the adaptation of animals to life. The influence of man’s economic activity on nature. The direction of nature protection.
3. What determines the number of high-altitude belts in the mountains?
The number of high-altitude belts depends on the geographical location of the mountains, their height, extent and exposure of the slopes. Andes stretched in the meridional direction from north to south along the Atlantic coast, the highest peak – Mount Aconcagua – reaches almost 7000 m.
Depending on the geographical latitude, the climate changes, and, consequently, the composition and quantity of high-altitude belts in this section of the mountains. High mountain ranges in the equator area are characterized by a large variety of natural zones, in contrast to the parts of mountains located in the temperate dry climate of Patagonia. Look at Figure 76 and consider which of the above-mentioned high-altitude belts there is no Patagonian Andes.
4. In what part of the Andes does the ocean have a big influence on the high altitude zone? What is this influence?
The diversity of the nature of the Andes is significantly influenced by the Pacific Ocean. Altitudinal zonality on the western slopes of the Andes is more pronounced in comparison with the areas of the Central Andes, isolated from the influence of the ocean by higher ridges.
5. Give examples of the changing nature of South America by man.
6. In which natural zones are these changes particularly large? Why?
7. In what natural zones are national parks located? Where are they most? Why?
Man influences nature in two ways: on the one hand, he destroys the equatorial forests, and on the other – organizes national parks for the protection of nature. The most significant changes are in those natural zones inhabited by man most densely – steppes, variable-moist forests along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
Name the national parks of South America. In what natural zone is the largest number of these parks? Make a story about one of them.