James Cook is a researcher, navigator, discoverer, who made three round-the-world trips, a cartographer.
James was born on October 27, 1728 in the town of Marton in the English County of Yorkshire. To attend school, Cook began when his family moved to Great Aeton. After five years, he worked on his father’s farm. And at age 18, James becomes a boy.
The first expedition of James Cook was a trip from London to Newcastle. Cook spent all his spare time, doing self-education: he studied maps, astronomy, geography and mathematics. In 1755 he began to serve in the Royal Navy, preferring the heavy work of a sailor to the proposed position of captain on a private vessel. Participated in the Seven Years’ War, and then withdrew from the fighting, but continued to draw up maps. For successful work was appointed captain of the ship “Newfoundland”. If we consider a brief biography of Cook, then in 1762 followed his return to England. There he married Elizabeth Butts.
But the greatest achievements of Cook are three of his travels, during which the maps were significantly refined. The first round-the-world expedition took place from 1768 to 1771. Cook as an experienced sailor was appointed captain of the only vessel on the expedition – Endeavor. In April 1769 the team arrived in Tahiti, where it established peaceful relations with the aborigines. There, Cook conducted astronomical observations. Then the team went to New Zealand, and then
The second round-the-world journey of D. Cook took place from 1772 to 1775. This time it was allocated two ships – “Resolution”, “Adventure”. The expedition began on July 13, 1772. In January 1773, for the first time in the world, the Southern Circle was crossed. During one of the storms, two ships lost sight of each other, and met only in Charlotte Bay. Then the team visited Tahiti, the Friendship Islands. Near New Zealand the ships dispersed again, so that “Adventure” returned to London, and Cook went on. He crossed the Southern Circle, visited Easter Island, the Marquesas Islands, Tahiti, the Friendship Islands, opened New Caledonia, South Georgia and returned to London.
Then from 1776 to 1779 passed the third journey of Cook. On two ships “Resolution” and “Discovery” expedition began in the summer of 1776. The team opened the island of Kerguelen. Then the expedition arrived in Tasmania, New Zealand, on the islands of Friendship. After that, in the biography of James Cook, the Christmas Island, Hawaiian Islands, was opened. Ships traversed the western part of North America, reached Alaska. After crossing the Arctic Circle, they landed in the Chukchi Sea. Turning around, the team arrived to the Aleutian Islands, and the idea to Hawaiian. There the attitude of the Hawaiians to the sailors became openly hostile, and on February 14, 1779, despite the fact that Cook was trying his best to maintain peaceful relations, in one of the skirmishes he was killed.