Prefix way of word formation

Prefix way of word formation

The prefix way of word formation is the formation of a new word due to the addition of a prefix to the generating word. In this case, the derivative word does not pass into another part of the speech.

Especially productive is the prefixation of verbs, and in the vast majority of cases the prefixes not only bring a new tinge of lexical meaning to the derived verb, but also give it the grammatical meaning of the perfect species. More often prefixal verbs of a perfect kind are motivated by imperfective verbs: learn -> study, read -> read. Significantly less often, verbs of the perfect species or two-species verbs act as motivating verbs: jump -> jump, inherit -> inherit. In some cases, as a result of adding a prefix, imperfective verbs are formed (harmonize -> disharmonize,

experience -> empathize) or two-species verbs (spend -> overspend, qualify -> disqualify).

The prefix formative way for nouns and adjectives is less productive than for verbs. Moreover, these parts of speech quite often attach prefixes of foreign origin – mostly Latin (de / des, sub, trans, etc.) or Greek (a-, anti-, archi-, etc.). For example: installation -> dismantling, comfort -> discomfort, minister -> ex-minister, logical -> illogical, national -> antipopular, important -> archival, national -> international, ordinary -> extraordinary, etc. From the actual Russian (by origin) prefixes are quite common in these parts of speech are the following:

Without / without – (literate -> illiterate, order -> disorder);

Outside – (planned -> unscheduled);

Up to – (urgent -> early);

Nay – (the best -> the best);

Not – (normal -> unusual, luck -> failure);

Re – (shift -> change);

Sub – (system -> subsystem);

Pre – (nasty -> preproductive);

At – (station -> station, sound -> call);

Co – (author -> co-author);

Super – (sound -> supersonic), etc.

Prefixation, as a less productive and less frequent word-forming tool, is also found in other parts of speech – in adverbs, pronouns, for example: for nothing -> not for nothing, for long -> long, quite -> for good, everywhere -> from everywhere, tomorrow -> day after tomorrow, who -> someone, what -> no, what -> something, and so on.


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Prefix way of word formation