Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev is a Russian realist writer who performed a mediation mission between the native and West European cultures. His prose, which raised the burning issues of modern life and represented a gallery of diverse human types, reflects the historical path of Russia in the 40s and 70s of the nineteenth century, illuminates the ideological and spiritual quest for the Russian intelligentsia, and reveals the deep features of the national character.
The life of I. Turgenev in dates and facts
November 9, 1818 – was born in Orel, in a noble family. Children’s days were spent in the estate Spasskoe-Lutovinovo, which became the prototype of the noble family clan, which the writer subsequently recreated many times in his works as a specific phenomenon of Russian culture.
In 1827, the family moved to Moscow, where the systematic formation of the young Turgenev began. After training in private boarding schools, he continued his studies at Moscow and St. Petersburg universities, and then, from 1838 to 1840, attended lectures at the University of Berlin. In Germany, the writer approached the talented young representatives of the Russian intelligentsia: NV Stankevich, who later created the Moscow philosophical circle, from which many outstanding figures of Russian culture, the future revolutionary MA Bakunin, and the future well-known historian and idol of the Moscow students of 1840 -50-ies. TN Granovsky. Upon his return to Russia, he joined the Ministry of the Interior, but soon abandoned her, determined to devote himself to literary creation.
In 1834, the first great literary experience of I. Turgenev, the poem “Steno”, which was not published during the author’s lifetime, but witnessed the presence of his literary instincts, is dated.
In the 1840s. – appears in the press as the author of poems, poems, dramas and first novels, approved by the public and literary criticism. Among those who enthusiastically perceived the writer, was V. G. Belinsky, who had a significant impact on the development of talent I. Turgenev.
1847 – in the magazine “Contemporary” was published Turgenev’s story “The Chorus and Kalinych”, to which the editorial board pre-edged the subtitle “From the Notes of the Hunter”. This story was a stunning success.
In 1843 Turgenev met with the singer Polina Viardot, who became the love of his entire life.
– the appearance of the collection of short stories “Notes of a Hunter”, perceived not only as a literary, but also as a social and cultural event in the life of Russia.
1850’s. – the heyday of the writer’s talent. At the beginning of this decade, the stories “Diary of an Extra Man”, “Calm” and others, were written, which served as approaches to the first novel “Rudin.” The model of love relations outlined in this work was further developed in the novels Asya, First Love and Veshnie Vody, forming a kind of trilogy about love; and the theme of ideological and spiritual searches of the intelligentsia, developed in Rudin, was placed in the basis of the novels The Noble Nest and The Eve. Discussion about the last novel served as the reason for Turgenev’s break with “Contemporary”, with whom he was associated for many years of close relations.
1862 – the novel “Fathers and Sons” was published, which aroused fierce disputes among representatives of various social and political camps and trends. Insulted by tactless controversy Turgenev went abroad, where he spent the last 20 years of his life. In France, where the writer lived predominantly, he was accepted into the literary community, to which V. Hugo, P. Merimee, Georges Sand, E. Goncourt, E. Zola, G. de Maupassant, G. Flaubert belonged.
1867 – the novel “Smoke” was written, which differed sharply in moods from previously created ones and reflected the extremely Western views of the writer. In Russia this work was received with irritation.
1877 – the publication of the novel “Nov” further deepened the misunderstanding between the writer and the Russian public.
1878 – together with V. Hugo I. Turgenev presided at the International Literary Congress in Paris.
Early 1880’s. The appearance of so-called “mysterious” stories – “Song of triumphant love” and “Clara Milich”, as well as a collection of “Poems in Prose”, which became the swan song of the writer.
September 3, 1883 – due to a serious illness Turgenev died in Bougival in the south of France. The writer was buried at Volkov cemetery in St. Petersburg.