Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev is a famous Russian writer and poet, publicist and playwright, a classic of Russian literature of the 19th century. Creativity Turgenev includes six novels, many stories, novels, articles, plays and poems.
Born Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev October 28, 1818 in the city of Orel. His family belonged to the nobility class both for his mother and for his father.
The first education in the biography of Turgenev was obtained in the estate Spassky-Lutovinov. The grammar of the boy was taught by German and French teachers. Since 1827, the family moved to Moscow. Then Turgenev’s training was held in private boarding schools in Moscow, after which he was educated at Moscow University. Not having finished it, Turgenev was transferred to
The beginning of the literary path
While studying at the third year of the institute, in 1834 Turgenev wrote his first poem called Steno. And in 1838, two of his first poems were published: “Evening” and “To Venus Meditseska”.
In 1841, after returning to Russia, he was engaged in scientific activities, wrote a thesis and received a master’s degree in philology. Then, when the craving for science cooled, Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev served as an official in the Ministry of Internal Affairs until 1844.
In 1843 Turgenev met Belinsky, they have friendly relations. Under the influence of Belinsky, new poems by Turgenev, poems and novels are being published, including: Parasha, Pop, Brether and Three Portraits.
The flowering of creativity
Since 1847, at the invitation of Nekrasov, in the reformed journal Sovremennik, his Contemporary Notes and the first chapters of the Notes of the Hunter came out, which brought the author tremendous success, and he began work on other stories about the hunt.
Work in the “Contemporary” brought Turgenev many interesting acquaintances, the magazine also printed Dostoevsky, Goncharov, Ostrovsky, Fet and other
In 1847, together with his friend Belinsky, he went abroad, where he became a witness of the February revolution in France.
In the late 40’s – early 50’s actively engaged in drama, wrote plays “Where subtle, there and is torn” and “Nahlebnik”, “Bachelor”, “Month in the Village”, “Provincial”, which are staged in theatrical scenes and have success with the public.
Turgenev translated the works of Byron and Shakespeare into Russian, from which he learned the mastery of literary techniques.
In August 1852, one of Turgenev’s most important books, The Notes of a Hunter, was published.
After the death of Gogol Turgenev wrote an obituary, for which Ivan Sergeyevich was sent for two years in exile in his native village. There is an opinion that the radical reason for the exile was the radical views of the writer, as well as the sympathetic attitude towards serfs, which he expressed in his work.
During the exile Turgenev wrote the story “Mumu”. Then, after the death of Nicholas I, the most famous works of Turgenev appear in print: “Rudin,” “The Noble Nest,” “On the Eve” and “Fathers and Sons.”
Other famous works of the writer include: novels “Smoke” and “Nov,” novels and stories “Diary of a superfluous person”, “Bezhin meadow”, “Asya”, “Spring waters” and many others.
In the autumn of 1855, Turgenev met Lev Tolstoy, who soon published the story “Felling of the Forest” with dedication to IS Turgenev.
Since 1863, he left for Germany, where he meets the outstanding writers of Western Europe, promotes Russian literature. He works as an editor and consultant, he translates from Russian into German and French and vice versa. He becomes the most popular and readable Russian writer in Europe. And in 1879 he received the title of Honorary Doctor of Oxford University.
It was thanks to the efforts of Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev that the best works of Pushkin, Gogol, Lermontov, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy were translated.
It is worth mentioning briefly that in the biography of Ivan Turgenev in the late 1870s – early 1880s his popularity rapidly increased, both at home and abroad. And critics began to rank him among the best writers of the century.
Since 1882, the writer began to overcome diseases: gout, angina, neuralgia. As a result of a painful illness, he dies on August 22, 1883 in Bougival. His body was brought to Petersburg and buried at Volkovsky Cemetery.
- In his youth Turgenev was frivolous, spending a lot of parental money for entertainment. For this, his mother once taught, sending bricks instead of money in the parcel. The personal life of the writer was not very successful. He had many novels, but none of them ended in marriage. The greatest love in his life was the opera singer Pauline Viardot. For 38 years Turgenev was acquainted with her and her husband Louis. For their family, he traveled all over the world, lived with them in different countries. They died Louis Viardot and Ivan Turgenev in one year. Turgenev was a clean man, dressed neatly. The writer loved to work in cleanliness and order – without this he never began to create.