(1769 – 1844)
Krylov Ivan Andreevich (1769 – 1844), poet-fabulist, playwright.
Born February 2 (February 14, S.) in Moscow in the family of a poor army captain, who received an officer’s rank only after a thirteen-year service. In 1775, his father retired, and the family settled in Tver.
Education future fabulist got meager, but, having exceptional abilities, reading a lot since childhood, persistently and stubbornly engaged in self-education, he became one of the most enlightened people of his time.
After the death of his father, the family remained without any means of subsistence, and from the age of ten Krylov had to work as a scribe in the Tver court. Mother failed to secure a pension after her husband’s death, and in 1782 it was decided to go to Petersburg to work on a pension. In the capital, too, nothing was achieved, but for Krylov there was a position of a clerk in the Treasury Chamber. In addition, St. Petersburg opened before him the opportunity to engage in literary work. Throughout 1786 – 88 Krylov wrote the tragedies “Cleopatra” and “Philomel” and the comedy “Mad family”, “Pranksters”. The name of the young playwright soon acquires fame in theatrical and literary circles. In 1789, Krylov began publishing a satirical magazine “The Post of Spirits,” which continued the traditions of Russian satirical journalism. Because of its radical direction,
In 1791 – 1801 Krylov departed from journalistic activities, wandered around the provinces: he visited Tambov, Saratov, Nizhny Novgorod, Ukraine. He did not stop composing, but his works only rarely appeared in print.
After the death of Catherine II, he managed to enter the service of Prince S. Golitsyn as a personal secretary and teacher of his children. In the home theater of Golitsyn was written written by Krylov in 1800 the tragedy “Trumph, or Podshchipa” – witty and apt to satire at Paul 1 and the royal court.
In 1801 he completed the comedy “Pie”, set in St. Petersburg and in Moscow.
In 1806 he returned to St. Petersburg, where he established new literary connections, wrote comedies “Fashion Shop” (1806) and “Lesson for Daughters” (1807). In 1809 the first book of Krylov’s fables appeared, in which he acted not only as a moralist, but as a denouncer of the “powerful” of this world, oppressing and tormenting the people. It was the fable that became the genre in which the genius of Krylov was expressed unusually widely. Nine books, including more than 200 fables, constitute the fictional legacy of Krylov.
In 1812 he became the librarian of the newly opened Public Library, where he served 30 years, retiring in 1841. Krylov not only proved to be a good collector of books, the number of which increased greatly with him, but he worked extensively on the compilation of bibliographic indexes and the Slavonic Russian dictionary.
November 9 (21 N. s.) 1844 at the age of 75 years, Krylov died. He was buried in Petersburg.
A short biography from the book: Russian writers and poets. A short biographical dictionary. Moscow, 2000.
2 (15) February 1768 – IA Krylov was born in Moscow in the family of an army officer, who was soon transferred to Orenburg, where the family lived until the boy turned 8.
1779 – the death of his father.
1783 – moving with his mother to St. Petersburg, serving as scribe in the treasury chamber.
1805 – acquaintance with the writer Dmitriev, who approved three of Lafontaine’s fables, translated by Krylov.
1809 – 23 editions translated by him are published in a separate edition.
1812 – service in the Public Library, the publication of fables about the war of 1812 – “The Wolf on the Kennels” and “The Crow and the Hen”.
1838 – the first of the Russian writers was honored with a solemn celebration of the 50th anniversary of his writings. By order of the emperor, a special medal in its part was knocked out.
9 (22) November 1844 – IA Krylov died and with great honors was buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.