1. Why did the share of oil and gas sharply increase in the structure of consumed fuel?
Fuel is the name of combustible substances, the combustion of which generates heat energy. The main constituent of these substances is carbon.
By origin, fuel is divided into natural and artificial; on the aggregate state – on solid, liquid and gaseous.
The main characteristic of the fuel is the heat of combustion. For comparison of various types of fuel and total inventory of its reserves, a unit of account is taken – conventional fuel. Its lowest calorific value is 29.3 MJ / kg. For the convenience of dust transfer, thermal coefficients are introduced.
As can be seen from Table 11, oil and gas are the most efficient sources of energy, therefore, when large deposits of these fuels were discovered, they easily took the leading positions in the fuel and energy balance.
2. What are the features of the location of the coal mining industry?
In the location of the coal mining industry, the raw material factor is the leading one, therefore its enterprises are located directly in the areas of the coal basins. Coal production in the Russian Federation in 2003 amounted to 277 million tons, 71% of which fell on hard coal. Most of the coal is extracted by open method.
3. Why does the Kansk-Achinsk coal basin develop in Siberia, and not the Tunguska coal basin?
The Tunguska basin is located in a sparsely populated, sparsely populated area at a considerable distance from the main consumers. Difficulties in transporting and extracting coal from the Tunguska Basin leave this richest resource practically untouched.
The Kansk-Achinsk basin is located in a densely populated and economically exploited part of Eastern Siberia, where its main consumers are located. In addition, the coal of this basin due to open production is the cheapest in Russia at cost.
4. Name and show on the map the largest oil fields.
Most of the Russian oil is produced in three oil and gas provinces:
- West Siberian – Samotyursk, Ust-Balyksk, Nizhnevartovsk, Surgut, Shaim, Megion and other deposits; Volga-Urals – Romashkinskoe, Almetyevskoe, Buguruslan, Shkapovskoe, Tuymazinskoye, Ishimbayevskoye, Arslan, Mukhanovsky, Yarinskoye fields; Timano-Pechorskaya – Ukhtinskoye, Usinskoye, Techebskoye, Yargenskoe, Pashinsky, and Voyeiskoye deposits.
The oldest oil producing region of Russia is the North Caucasus. Here the highest quality of oil, but also the highest degree of depletion of deposits. For comparison: the degree of depletion of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province is 50%, and the West Siberian -33%.
Now intensively conducted work on the preparation for the exploitation of deposits on the shelf and the search for new ones. Geological exploration is 78% associated with the search for new oil and gas fields. Several new promising deposits have been discovered in the Lena-Vilyui depression, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Khabarovsk territory and the Sea of Okhotsk.
5. What are the features of the location of enterprises in the oil and oil refining industry? Compare the figure with the population density map. Draw conclusions.
The oil industry is associated with the location of oil and gas bearing areas, i. e. with sources of raw materials.
Oil refining industry, thanks to convenient transportation through pipelines, tends more towards the consumer and therefore its geography coincides with densely populated regions.
6. Estimate the geographical location of individual coal basins in terms of fuel supply to other parts of the country and its possible sale abroad.
Russia is one of the largest exporters of coal to the world market. Traditional buyers are the countries of Europe and Asia.... And l CIS countries – Ukraine.
The largest coal basin in Russia in terms of production is Kuzbass. It accounts for more than 40% of all production. It produces a variety of types of coal, including coking and anthracite.
Coal of Kuzbass is delivered to various regions of the country. Despite the remoteness from world markets, this pool is the largest exporter of Russian coal.
The Kansko-Achinsky basin gives the cheapest, but low-calorie coal, which in combination with remoteness from the world markets makes its transportation ineffective, in addition, it can spontaneously burn itself. Therefore, KATEK’s coal is used mainly on-site to produce electricity at powerful power plants.
Pechora coal is not competitive in the world market due to the high price, it is used at the Cherepovets Metallurgical Combine.
The South Yakut basin, where anthracite high-calorie coals are being developed open-source, exports coal to Japan.
7. What do you think, what problems exist in our country in connection with the concentration of fuel resources in the east, and consumers in the west of Russia?
The remoteness of consumers from places of extraction of fuel resources demands considerable expenses for delivery of the last ones – development of railways, construction of specialized pipelines. Transportation of fuel over long distances significantly increases its cost to the consumer.
Another problem is the organization of extraction of these resources in areas with severe climatic conditions and undeveloped infrastructure. This requires taking special measures to attract the population: various benefits, a higher salary, etc.
8. Why do some fuels inferior to their advanced positions over time? For a more complete answer, use Figure 3.
In the Kondratieff cycle table there is no special graph – types of fuel. Nevertheless, by the key factor and the core of the technological cycle, you can recreate the picture of the change of fuels.
In the first cycle – the use of fuel as an energy source is minimal. In the second – the main type of fuel is coal. In the third – any type of fuel can be used, in the fourth – oil. In the fifth cycle, with the development of high technologies and huge energy requirements, nuclear power is becoming increasingly important.
9. Compare, using maps of the textbook, the geography of the three branches of the fuel industry: oil, gas, coal. Which of these industries is the most concentrated, and which one is the most dispersed? Highlight the types of economic areas with different combinations of fuel resources: a) there are all three types; b) one species, c) none.
The geography of fuel resources is determined by the peculiarities of the tectonic structure of the territory.
The coal industry is more dispersed than oil or gas. The bulk of coal deposits are located at a significant distance from world markets, and only high quality coal and low production costs allow Russian raw materials to withstand competition. Coal deposits have long been the basis for the formation of large industrial regions with developed energy, metallurgy and chemical industry.
Compared with the coal industry, oil is the most concentrated. Oil deposits are closer to the consumer. About 65% of oil is produced in Western Siberia, about 25% of the production falls on the Volga-Ural region. Transportation of oil is much cheaper than coal, so its processing is carried out in the areas of consumption.
The geography of the gas industry basically coincides with the location of the oil industry. 90% of Russian gas is produced in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.