“Syntax and punctuation are studied simultaneously, since the arrangement of punctuation marks and their choice depends on the structure of the sentence, the ways in which words or parts of this sentence are linked in it” – SI Lvova, a linguist.
The syntax in Russian is one of the sections of grammar and linguistics. This is the science of the compatibility of words with each other, the correct construction of word combinations, sentences and expressions.
Of course, the arrangement of commas and other punctuation marks in the sentence depends on the meaning that is included in this sentence. The semantic content that the speaker and the writing person wants to put into the text and deliver to the addressees is in the first place, and the punctuation marks for it are adjusted.
At least, my opinion on this issue is this. I consider the syntax to be primary, because oral speech was primary, and written with all the punctuation marks appeared all humanity later. To understand where to put a comma, and where it is not necessary, we can only rely on the meaning that conveys a sentence or a phrase to us.
In the book “Childhood” Maxim Gorky, you can find a few vivid examples of this. The author, describing the guest Peshkov nicknamed the Good Case, uses the enumeration of his qualities, that is, he brings homogeneous sentences in the text: silent, inconspicuous. The character traits of a person are listed, as it should be, separated by a comma.
But in the description of the exterior of this same tenant, “a thin, stooping man with kind eyes,” there are no commas. The concepts by which the author paints the image of the Good Cause in this case are not homogeneous members of the sentence. They are pronounced without the intonation of enumeration, although they perform the same syntactic function and are associated with the word “man”.
You can study syntax using different scientific approaches: computer, psychological, cognitive, stylistic, semantic, logical. The researcher’s approach should always be applied to punctuation.