Grammar (Greek grammatike, from gramma “letter, spelling”) is a formal system of language as a system of morphological and syntactic categories and forms, that is, features of word processing and sentence construction inherent in the language.
The word and sentence as the main linguistic units are devoted to different sections of the grammar: the word – the object of morphology, and the sentence – the object of the syntax. Thus, morphology is the “grammatical doctrine of the word,” and syntax is the doctrine of the grammatical properties of the word combination and sentence.
Morphology studies the parts of speech as grammatical classes of words, grammatical categories of different parts of speech, ways of expressing grammatical meanings in the word, the paradigm of inflection, etc. (see Morphology). The object of the syntax is a sentence, its structure (members of the sentence) and functions, syntactic grammatical meanings and ways of
expressing them in the composition of the sentence, the types of connection of words, etc. (see Syntax).
The word and sentence are not isolated from each other, but closely interact: the word realizes its grammatical possibilities in the composition of the sentence. Therefore, morphology and syntax are also closely interrelated, it is not easy to draw a boundary between them, in aggregate they represent the grammatical system of language.
The word is the central unit of the language, the most complex, combining different aspects of the language structure, located at the intersection of morphology, syntax and vocabulary (see the Word). The term “word” in linguistics can have different meanings. For example, the question: How many words in the sentence “Error on the error sits and the error drives”? – You can respond in different ways. If you count each word, then you get seven separate words, and if you decide that the error, error and error should be combined as a single word form, then you get only five words. A different understanding of the word “word” is possible
because the word is the basic unit of not only morphology as part of the grammar, but also vocabulary (see Lexicon). However, grammar and vocabulary differently understand the word:
So, the word in the sentence appears in a specific grammatical form (word form), which expresses a certain grammatical meaning. The wordform can have several grammatical meanings. For example, a wall is a feminine noun, in the singular, nominative case.
Homogeneous grammatical meanings (eg, noun cases or verb tenses) are combined into grammatical categories. Thus, grammar combines words into classes on the basis of a common grammatical meaning, rather than lexical. For example, the words table, chair, wardrobe, etc., have a common grammatical meaning: a masculine noun in the singular nominative case.
Thus, grammar as an abstract system structures the vocabulary, classifies words, formalizes sentences, that is, it represents the scheme of the internal structure of the language.