The suffixal way of word formation

The suffixal way of word formation

Especially large is the number of suffixal formations in the language. This method consists in the fact that a new word is formed by attaching a suffix to the producing basis. New words formed by suffixation can remain in the same part of the speech (gas – gas manger, gasification) and can move to another part of the speech (gas – gas – gasify). It depends on the nature of the suffix, because unlike the prefix, the suffix is ​​fixed to a certain part of the speech. In the Russian language there are no suffixes that would be common for different parts of the speech KA Levkovskaya. Word formation. – M. Izd-vo MGU, 1966. – p. 170.

Widely distributed is the suffix in the circle of nouns and adjectives. Much less it is used in verbs. Being mainly indicators

of grammatical meaning, verbal suffixes rarely change the meaning of verbs.

The complexity of suffixation, unlike prefixing, is that in the case of suffixation, alternations of sounds are possible, which to some extent alter both the phonetic and literal appearance of the word, for example: boot – boot, wolf – wolf, spirit – soul, honest – honest, bar – bruska, etc.

Unlike the prefix, the suffix in the vast majority of cases is attached not to the whole word, but to its basis. The addition of a suffix to the whole word is possible only in the following cases: 1) if the word is a pure basis (for example: posterity, yesterday-shny); 2) if the word has a zero ending (brow + ac + th, gas + new, tooth +, table + ick); 3) Only in some cases the suffix is ​​attached to the whole verb in an indefinite form (growing + growing, growing +, wishing / ba, guardian).

Prefix-suffix (mixed) way of word formation

New words can be formed in a combined way, that is, by simultaneously attaching a prefix and a suffix (for example: a colleague, a country road, in winter, to scatter, etc.) or by suffixing a prepositional combination in which the preposition becomes a prefix for example: before the deadline – early, at school – school). With this method, a different structure is formed,

in which a generative base or word is “embedded” (for example, a fellow student). N. M. Shansky. Essays on Russian word formation. – M. Publishing House of the Moscow State University, 1968. – P. 282.

Among the nouns formed in the prefix-suffix way. The most active are suffixes – nick, – d – (-j-). With the help of the suffix – nickname, a large group of nouns with the meaning of the object (armlet, eyecup, handcuff, corner, tip, epiglottis, patella, podzerkalnik, cup holder, duvet cover, snowdrop) and with the meaning of the face (stowaway, shameless, slacker, homeless, interlocutor, employee, podkulachnik, freeloader, homeworker, partner, submariner, sponsor, etc.).

In the nouns denoting space and space, suffixes – y – (-j-) (and also – ok-) are actively involved: hill, seaside, coastal, off-road, district, polar regions, coastal areas, coastal areas, cross-roads, crossroads, foothills, predestination, coast, woodland, dungeon, counter, hillock, lane, coppice, scruff, back of head, skull, chin.

From some nouns on the model “prefix + noun + suffix of the noun + ending” – are formed and their own and geographical names: Elbrus, Primorye, Transcarpathia, the Arctic, Transvolga, Zadonye, ​​Podberezie.

Other suffixes in the formation of prefix-suffixal nouns are weak Averyanova AL How words are formed. The book for students. – M.-L. Education, 1966. – P.14.

The adjective is also inherent in the prefix-suffix way of word-formation according to the model

“the preposition + the stem of the noun + the adjective suffix + the end of the adjective”

For + city + n + uy = out-of-town, for + mor (e) + cc + uy = seaside, etc.

The type of mixed word-formation intensively develops also in the verb. In this case, the prefix and the suffix are simultaneously attached to the verb, since these verbs are not used without a prefix or without a suffix, for example:

Once + run + xia = run away; races + sickness = fall; time + dream + hia = dream; once + cry + sya = burst into tears; races + cry + sya = crying; from + to starve + to = starve; on + is + xia = eat; at + tolerate + xia = be patient; in + read + Xia; in + live + xia = get used to.

The morpheme, attached to the verb along with the prefix, has no collateral value, but performs in these verbs the role of the word-forming suffix. In the case of verbal mixed word-formation, the prefix of (ra-) is the most active, the prefixes from (-is), pre-, for-, some prefixes in mixed verbal word formation can be used without suffix, cf.:

Dew / roof / and / t, blank / wing / and / t, meaning / meaning / iv / t, des / color / and /, obez / heads / and /, obez / bol / prices / and / etc, etc.

How can we determine in what way a specific derivative word has been formed that has a prefix and suffix in its morphemes? In order to answer this question, let us consider concrete examples.

1. How did the words such as employee, lack of culture, nape, table, overseas form, for example, form? Undoubtedly, these words can not be classified as prefix, since there are no corresponding non-fictitious words in the language “laborer”, “culture”, “rear”, “table”, “sea”. They also can not be attributed to the suffix, since in the language there are no corresponding words “collaborators”, “uncultured”, “zatyl”, “table”, “zamor”. Consequently, these names were formed by the simultaneous attachment to the roots (labor, cultures (a), rear, table, prefix and suffix.) This is an independent prefix-suffixal type of word-formation.

2. Consider parallel series of word formation: fundamental, but unprincipled; sea, but overseas; urban but suburban; bodily, but native; foot, but foot; river, but the river.

It is easy to see that these unprimed and prefix-suffix formations are created according to different models. This is indicated by differences in suffixes and endings (i. e., formants). Consequently, the first words can not be called productive for the second words.

3. The suffix-prefix method is also distinguished by its stress system. It is noted that in words formed by the prefix-suffixal method, the endings are unstressed. So, for example, in the following formations the stress falls on the syllable that is in the prepositional combinations from which they were formed: for the lions, for the engagement, without the cult, for unculturedness, for the potpal, for the pre-populous, without the specter, for the unpristine.

If, however, the stress on the producing basis (ie, in the prepositional expression falls on the ending, then in the derived word, the stress moves to the vowel basis: without teeth, but without a tail, without tail, but bezshovy, under a beard, but under the ground, but under the ground subsea, etc.

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The suffixal way of word formation