Words are the building material for any language. Of these, proposals and phrases are built, with their help we convey thoughts, communicate. The ability of this unit to call or denote objects, actions, etc. is called a nominative (call) function. The suitability of the word for communication, the transmission of thoughts is called its cognitive function.
Thus, the word is the basic, the main structural unit of language.
Every word in Russian has a lexical and grammatical meaning.
Lexical refers to the relationship between the phonetic (phonetic) formulation of a word, its sounding with phenomena of reality, images, objects, actions, etc., can be said more simply: this is the meaning. From the lexical point of view, the words “barrel”, “hummock”,
The grammatical meaning of a word is the meaning of its forms: gender or number, case or conjugation. If the words “barrel”, “point” is considered grammatically, then they will be absolutely identical: creatures. feminine gender, standing in the nominative case and unity. number.
If you compare the lexical and grammatical meaning of a word, you can see that they are not the same, but are interrelated. The lexical meaning of each of them is universal, the main one is fixed in the root. (For example: “son”, “son”, “sonul”, “son”).
The grammatical meaning of a word is transmitted with the help of word-building morphemes: endings and form-building suffixes. So, the lexical meaning of the words “forest”, “forester”, “forester” will be quite close: their meaning is determined by the root “forest”. From a grammatical point of view, they are completely different: two nouns and an adjective.
On the contrary, the words “came”, “arrived”, “ran”, “ran”, “flew away”, “shot down” will be similar in grammatical direction. These are verbs that stand
From the examples follows the conclusion: the grammatical meaning of a word is its belonging to a part of speech, the general meaning of a whole series of similar units, not tied to their specific material (semantic) content. “Mom”, “Dad”, “Motherland” – creatures. 1 declensions that stand in the form of an integral space of singularities. number. “Owl”, “mouse”, “youth” – noun females. genus, 3 declensions, standing in the r. The grammatical meaning of the words “red,” “huge,” “wooden” indicates that these are adjectives standing in the form of a husband. kind, unique. numbers, etc. It is clear that the lexical meaning of these words is different.
The grammatical meaning of a word is expressed in a certain form, corresponding to the position of words in the sentence (or phrase), expressed through grammatical means. Most often such are affixes, but often the grammatical form is formed with the help of official words, stress, word order or intonation.
From the way the form is formed, its form (name) directly depends.
Simple (they are also called synthetic) grammatical forms are formed inside the unit (with the help of endings or form-building suffixes). Case forms (no) of mother, daughter, son, Homeland are formed with the help of endings. The past tense of verbs “wrote”, “jumped” – with the help of the suffix and the zero ending, and the verb “jumped” – with the suffix “l” and ending with “a”.
Some forms are formed outside the token, not inside it. In this case, there is a need for official words. For example, the verbs “I will sing” and “let’s sing” are formed by means of auxiliary words (verbs). The words “I will” and “let’s” in this case have no lexical meaning. They are needed to create the forms of the word. In the first case – the future time, and in the second – the incentive mood. Such forms are called complex or analytical.