Medieval Europe lived mainly at the expense of agriculture. Agriculture up to the XIX century. was primitive, the technique was not used. The tools of labor remained great-great. The earth loosened up somehow, it was not fertilized, nevertheless they wanted it to yield a good harvest. Of course, under such conditions, the yields were extremely low. But in this case, among the peasants, consumer sentiments dominated. Poverty and hunger remained a daily reality for them.
Nevertheless, the changes for the better occurred in the village. The plow was improved so that it was better for them to plow the land. There was a clamp and harness. Now it was already possible to harness the plow or carts of not only strong but leisurely oxen, but also horses. This accelerated the cultivation of land and made it possible to deliver quickly spoiling products to remote markets. Not without reason the collar became famous as “the father of trade and the market”.
The peasants lived in communities and helped each other in the household. Since not every peasant had a pair of horses, then they used a spar. What does it mean? The one-horse peasants lent each other a working horse, so that the horses were enough for the harness, and in turn they plowed their plots. In general, at the end of the Middle Ages, the well-being of many peasants has increased noticeably. They no longer huddled in mud huts, but lived in more or less decent houses and ate better.
Clamp and harness – details of horse harness.