War of the Roses and the White Rose. The Civil War of 1455-1485

Of course, it was not the flowers that caused the terrible bloodshed in England at the end of the Middle Ages. In the Civil War of 1455-1485. The country was involved in two influential noble families – York and Lancaster. The coat of arms of York was adorned with a white rose, the coat of arms of the Lancaster was scarlet. So beautiful flowers became symbols of human tragedy.

King Henry VI of the Lancaster family was ill, so the state was led by his wife – the Frenchwoman Margarita of Anjou. In this situation, Duke Richard of York tried to take possession of the throne – they say, in order to save England from the dominance of the French.

Lancasters were not going to lose power. All took up arms, flew from the shoulders of knightly heads, all overnight forgot about the chivalrous mercy. The first to have been killed were Richard of York and his associates, and then the Lancasters went to the full. The representative of the White Rose Party Eduard IV became

the king, and Margarita of Anjou and her son fled to France. The military advantage was that on one side, then on the other side. In the end, to England with the army returned – on my head! – Marguerite of Anjou. The angry Yorkists crushed her army in a matter of minutes. Margarita was taken prisoner, her son was killed. Not even those who tried to escape were imprisoned in the monastery. Edward IV returned to London, Henry VI, who again took the throne, was killed. The surviving Lancastrians fled, among them was Count Heinrich Tudor, the future English king.

The country sighed with relief. She was ready to tolerate anyone on the throne, if only the long-awaited peace would come. But the tests for England did not end there. After the death of Edward IV, the power was seized by his brother Richard III, who allegedly killed two young heirs. This renewed the struggle for the throne.

In the summer of 1485, Henry Tudor landed in England with the army. The soldiers of Richard III fled. Richard III was given a horse so that he would flee, but he courageously replied that he would perish by the king.

And, of course, he died. Crown here, on the battlefield, crowned the head of Henry Tudor – henceforth King Henry VII. He, the founder of the Tudor dynasty, was destined to complete his medieval English by his rule. To reassure the Yorkists, Henry VII married to the daughter of Edward IV Elizabeth of York and united in her coat of arms a scarlet and white rose.

Henry VI became king at the age of 9 months. His first royal decree, he appointed one of the court ladies “our nanny” and instructed her “to look after our special and from time to time punish us within the bounds of what is permissible.” This decree, written, of course, by the guardians, probably, for the first time in history allowed to give a sweep to the royal person. It is sealed with a fingerprint of a royal finger.

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War of the Roses and the White Rose. The Civil War of 1455-1485