Medieval cities became the cultural centers of Europe.
Urban literature – verse novels, fables, rude jokes, etc. – amazed with its spontaneity and truthful portrayal of emotional experiences. She ridiculed greed and ignorance of the clergy, arrogance of nobles, other vices of society. Her favorite character was not a knight in love, but a cheerful hero, able to get out of the water.
Most of all, the citizens were read by the French “The Novel about the Fox.” From his hero, inventive and audacious Fox, in which they recognized the rich and enterprising burgher, got to all. The Fox defeated the dull and bloodthirsty Wolf, a strong but stupid Bear-knight, fooled the Lion King, and laughed at the Osl-the Churchman. But at the same time, he did not even endure the disadvantaged – Kur, Zaitsev, Snails…
In the XIII century. in Europe, the city’s theatrical art originated – bright, carnival, secular. The performances were played
by the Jugglers, who were both dancers, singers, musicians, acrobats, and jugglers, and even God knows who.
Where jugglers appeared, everything there was in motion. But the biggest disturbers were Vagant. They acutely ridiculed human and social vices, they knew how to enjoy life, all the Europeans sang their cocky songs. Cheerful anthem “Let’s enjoy!” , built by them, and now all the students of the world are singing.
Among the Vagant, the French poet of the 15th century stood out as his talent. Francois Villon. He himself suffered a lot in his life and therefore sympathized with the disadvantaged:
The rich have all the benefits –
They give much to the Creator.
That’s their life and calm, the benefit of
such a sin
to grumble But to the poor, like me, there must
be compassion for God:
From those whose belly is always full,
Let Him ask strictly.
In the XIV-XV centuries. fresh breath for the culture of Europe was the work of the outstanding Italian poet and thinker Dante Alighieri. In his immortal work “The
Divine Comedy” he portrayed the majestic picture of the universe, the life of man and society. He glorified wisdom and kindness, faith in man. The harbinger of the new European literature was also the English poet Jeffrey Chaucer – the author of the full of humor and humanity of the Canterbury Tales.
Carnival is a mass folk festivities with a street procession, a masquerade, and entertainment.
Jugglers are medieval wandering artists in Western Europe.
Vagant – wandering medieval actors.